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Prince Adolphus Frederick, first duke of Cambridge (1774–1850) by Sir Thomas Lawrence, begun 1818 The Royal Collection © 2004 HM Queen Elizabeth II

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Adolphus Frederick, Prince, first duke of Cambridge (1774–1850), viceroy of Hanover, army officer, and son of George III, was born at the Queen's Palace (now Buckingham Palace), St James's Park, London, in the evening of 24 February 1774, the tenth child and seventh son of ...

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Prince Augustus Frederick, duke of Sussex (1773–1843) by Guy Head, 1798 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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T. F. Henderson

revised by John Van der Kiste

Augustus Frederick, Prince, duke of Sussex (1773–1843), sixth son and ninth child of George III and Queen Charlotte, was born at Buckingham House (later Palace) on 27 January 1773. From 1786, when he entered the University of Göttingen, until 1804, he mostly resided abroad. As a young man, he suffered severely from asthma; too delicate to join the ...

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Beauclerk, Charles, first duke of St Albans (1670–1726), army officer, the illegitimate son of Charles II and Nell Gwyn, was born at his mother's house in Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, on 8 May 1670. It is said that one day when the king was with ...

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Prince Edward, duke of Kent and Strathearn (1767–1820) by Sir William Beechey, 1818 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Edward, Prince, duke of Kent and Strathearn (1767–1820), the fourth son of George III (1738–1820) and Queen Charlotte (1744–1818), was born on 2 November 1767 at Buckingham House, London. After an up-and-down career in the army, he became the father of Queen Victoria...

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Edward Augustus, Prince, duke of York and Albany (1739–1767), was born on 14 March 1739 at Norfolk House, St James's Square, London, the third child and second son of Frederick Lewis, prince of Wales (1707–1751), and his wife, Augusta (1719–1772), daughter of Friedrich II, ...

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Ernest Augustus (1771–1851), king of Hanover, fifth son of George III and Queen Charlotte, was born on 5 June 1771 at Buckingham House (later Palace), St James's Park, London. His boyhood was spent at Kew, in a cottage set aside by George III...

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Ernest Augustus (1771–1851) by George Dawe, c. 1828 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Fitzcharles, Charles, earl of Plymouth (c. 1657–1680), courtier and army officer, was born, probably in Bruges, in 1657, the illegitimate son of Charles II (1630–1685), and Catherine Pegge (d. 1678). His mother's liaison with the exiled king had come to an end by 1658, and he was brought up by her in the ...

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FitzRoy [formerly Palmer], Charles, second duke of Cleveland and first duke of Southampton (1662–1730), landowner, the first son of Charles II and Barbara Palmer, countess of Castlemaine (bap. 1640, d. 1709), was baptized on 18 June 1662 at St Margaret's, Westminster. Officially his father was ...

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FitzRoy [formerly Palmer], George, duke of Northumberland (1665–1716), courtier and army officer, was born on 28 December 1665 at Merton College, Oxford, the third and youngest son of Charles II and Barbara Palmer, countess of Castlemaine (bap. 1640, d. 1709). For the first few years of his life he was officially the son of his mother's husband, ...

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FitzRoy [formerly Palmer], Henry, first duke of Grafton (1663–1690), naval officer, the second illegitimate son of Charles II (1630–1685) and Barbara Palmer, née Villiers, countess of Castlemaine and later duchess of Cleveland (bap. 1640, d. 1709), was born at his mother's house in ...

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Prince Frederick, duke of York and Albany (1763–1827) by Sir David Wilkie, 1822–3 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Frederick, Prince, duke of York and Albany (1763–1827), army officer and bishop of Osnabrück, was the second son of George III and Queen Charlotte. He was born at St James's Palace, London, on 16 August 1763, and on 27 February 1764 was elected to the bishopric of ...

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Frederick Lewis, prince of Wales (1707–1751), was born at the Leine Palace, Hanover, on 20/31 January 1707, the first child of George Augustus (Georg August), electoral prince of Hanover or Brunswick-Lüneburg, later George II, king of Great Britain and Ireland (1683–1760), and Caroline (1683–1737)...

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Henry, Prince, duke of Gloucester (1640–1660), was born on 8 July 1640 at Oatlands, Surrey, and baptized there on 22 July, the fourth, but third surviving, son of Charles I, king of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1600–1649), and Queen Henrietta Maria (1609–1669). He was declared ...

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Henry Frederick, Prince, duke of Cumberland and Strathearn (1745–1790), was born on 26 October 1745 at Leicester House, London, the sixth child and fourth son of Frederick Lewis, prince of Wales (1707–1751), and his wife, Augusta (1719–1772), daughter of Friedrich II, duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg...

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Prince Henry Frederick, duke of Cumberland and Strathearn (1745–1790) by Thomas Gainsborough, c. 1783–5 [[Left to right] , Anne, duchess of Cumberland (1743-1808), and Lady Elizabeth Luttrell (d. 1799)] The Royal Collection © 2004 HM Queen Elizabeth II