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Prince Adolphus Frederick, first duke of Cambridge (1774–1850) by Sir Thomas Lawrence, begun 1818 The Royal Collection © 2004 HM Queen Elizabeth II

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Adolphus Frederick, Prince, first duke of Cambridge (1774–1850), viceroy of Hanover, army officer, and son of George III, was born at the Queen's Palace (now Buckingham Palace), St James's Park, London, in the evening of 24 February 1774, the tenth child and seventh son of ...

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Prince Augustus Frederick, duke of Sussex (1773–1843) by Guy Head, 1798 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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T. F. Henderson

revised by John Van der Kiste

Augustus Frederick, Prince, duke of Sussex (1773–1843), sixth son and ninth child of George III and Queen Charlotte, was born at Buckingham House (later Palace) on 27 January 1773. From 1786, when he entered the University of Göttingen, until 1804, he mostly resided abroad. As a young man, he suffered severely from asthma; too delicate to join the ...

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Prince Edward, duke of Kent and Strathearn (1767–1820) by Sir William Beechey, 1818 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Edward, Prince, duke of Kent and Strathearn (1767–1820), the fourth son of George III (1738–1820) and Queen Charlotte (1744–1818), was born on 2 November 1767 at Buckingham House, London. After an up-and-down career in the army, he became the father of Queen Victoria...

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Edward Augustus, Prince, duke of York and Albany (1739–1767), was born on 14 March 1739 at Norfolk House, St James's Square, London, the third child and second son of Frederick Lewis, prince of Wales (1707–1751), and his wife, Augusta (1719–1772), daughter of Friedrich II, ...

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Ernest Augustus (1771–1851), king of Hanover, fifth son of George III and Queen Charlotte, was born on 5 June 1771 at Buckingham House (later Palace), St James's Park, London. His boyhood was spent at Kew, in a cottage set aside by George III...

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Ernest Augustus (1771–1851) by George Dawe, c. 1828 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Prince Frederick, duke of York and Albany (1763–1827) by Sir David Wilkie, 1822–3 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Frederick, Prince, duke of York and Albany (1763–1827), army officer and bishop of Osnabrück, was the second son of George III and Queen Charlotte. He was born at St James's Palace, London, on 16 August 1763, and on 27 February 1764 was elected to the bishopric of ...

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Frederick Lewis, prince of Wales (1707–1751), was born at the Leine Palace, Hanover, on 20/31 January 1707, the first child of George Augustus (Georg August), electoral prince of Hanover or Brunswick-Lüneburg, later George II, king of Great Britain and Ireland (1683–1760), and Caroline (1683–1737)...

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Henry Frederick, Prince, duke of Cumberland and Strathearn (1745–1790), was born on 26 October 1745 at Leicester House, London, the sixth child and fourth son of Frederick Lewis, prince of Wales (1707–1751), and his wife, Augusta (1719–1772), daughter of Friedrich II, duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg...

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Prince Henry Frederick, duke of Cumberland and Strathearn (1745–1790) by Thomas Gainsborough, c. 1783–5 [[Left to right] , Anne, duchess of Cumberland (1743-1808), and Lady Elizabeth Luttrell (d. 1799)] The Royal Collection © 2004 HM Queen Elizabeth II

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William Augustus, Prince, duke of Cumberland (1721–1765), army officer, was born at Leicester House, London, on 15 April 1721, the second surviving son of George, prince of Wales, the future George II, and his wife, Caroline. The eldest son, Frederick, was still abroad in ...

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Prince William Augustus, duke of Cumberland (1721–1765) by Sir Joshua Reynolds, 1758 Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth. By permission of the Duke of Devonshire and the Chatsworth Settlement Trustees

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William Henry, Prince, first duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh (1743–1805), was born on 14 November 1743 at Leicester House, London, the fifth child and third son of Frederick Lewis, prince of Wales (1707–1751), and his wife, Augusta (1719–1772), daughter of Friedrich II, duke of Saxe-Gotha...

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Prince William Henry, first duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh (1743–1805) by Sir Joshua Reynolds, c. 1770 © National Portrait Gallery, London