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Beaufort, Edmund, first duke of Somerset (c. 1406–1455), magnate and soldier, was the younger brother of John Beaufort, duke of Somerset (1404–1444); John and Edmund were the second and third sons of John Beaufort, marquess of Dorset and of Somerset (c. 1371–1410), who was the eldest son of ...

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Beaufort, Edmund, styled third duke of Somerset (c. 1438–1471), magnate, was the second of the three sons of Edmund Beaufort, first duke of Somerset (d. 1455), and his wife, Eleanor, daughter of Richard Beauchamp, earl of Warwick (1382–1439), and widow of Thomas, Baron Ros of Helmsley...

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Henry Beaufort (1375?–1447) stone effigy © English Heritage. NMR

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Beaufort, Henry [called the Cardinal of England] (1375?–1447), bishop of Winchester and cardinal, was the second of four illegitimate children of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster (1340–1399), and Katherine Swynford (1350?–1403), daughter of the Hainaulter Sir Payn Roelt, who was governess to the duke's children [...

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Beaufort, Henry, second duke of Somerset (1436–1464), magnate, was born early in 1436, the eldest son of Edmund Beaufort, first duke of Somerset (d. 1455), and his wife, Eleanor, daughter of Richard Beauchamp, earl of Warwick (d. 1439), and widow of Thomas, Baron Ros...

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Beaufort, John, marquess of Dorset and marquess of Somerset (c. 1371–1410), soldier and administrator, was the first offspring of the liaison between John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster (1340–1399), and Katherine Swynford (1350?–1403) [see Katherine, duchess of Lancaster]. He became a staunch supporter of ...

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Beaufort, John, duke of Somerset (1404–1444), magnate and soldier, was the second son of John Beaufort, marquess of Dorset and of Somerset (d. 1410), and Margaret Holland, daughter of Thomas Holland, earl of Kent. He succeeded to the earldom of Somerset on the death of his elder brother, ...

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Beaufort, Thomas, duke of Exeter (1377?–1426), magnate and soldier, was the youngest of the three illegitimate sons of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, and Katherine Swynford [see Katherine, duchess of Lancaster]. His brothers were John Beaufort and Henry Beaufort...

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Edmund of Almain, second earl of Cornwall (1249–1300), magnate, was born at his father's castle of Berkhamsted on 26 December 1249, as the second and only surviving son of Richard, first earl of Cornwall (1209–1272), brother of Henry III, and his wife Sanchia (...

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Edmund [Edmund of Woodstock], first earl of Kent (1301–1330), magnate, was the sixth son of Edward I (1239–1307) and the second from Edward's second marriage, to Margaret (1279?–1318), daughter of Philippe III, king of France (d. 1285). He was born on 5 August 1301 at ...

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Edward [Edward of Langley, Edward of York], second duke of York (c. 1373–1415), magnate, the eldest son of Edmund (1341–1402), the fifth son of Edward III, and Isabella of Castile (d. 1393), second daughter of Pedro the Cruel (r. 1350–69) and his mistress ...

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Geoffrey (1151?–1212), archbishop of York, was the illegitimate son of Henry II. He was probably named after his paternal grandfather, Geoffrey of Anjou (d. 1151).

Geoffrey's date of birth is suggested by indirect evidence. ...

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Geoffrey (1151?–1212) seal Chapter of Durham Cathedral

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Henry of Lancaster, third earl of Lancaster and third earl of Leicester (c. 1280–1345), magnate, was the second son of Edmund (Crouchback), earl of Lancaster (1245–1296), the youngest son of Henry III, and Blanche (d. 1302), daughter of Robert, count of Artois...

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Henry of Lancaster [Henry of Grosmont], first duke of Lancaster (c. 1310–1361), soldier and diplomat, was the son of Henry, third earl of Lancaster (c. 1280–1345), and Maud Chaworth (d. 1317×22).

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Henry of Lancaster, first duke of Lancaster (c. 1310–1361) manuscript painting, c. 1430 The British Library

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William Longespée, third earl of Salisbury (b. in or before 1167, d. 1226) tomb effigy © English Heritage. NMR

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Longespée [Lungespée], William, third earl of Salisbury (b. in or before 1167, d. 1226), magnate, was the natural son of Henry II and Ida de Tosny, probably the daughter of Roger (III) de Tosny, a powerful Anglo-Norman lord, and his wife, also Ida...

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Plantagenet, Arthur, Viscount Lisle (b. before 1472, d. 1542), soldier, diplomat, and administrator, was the illegitimate son of Edward IV (1442–1483).

The identity of Arthur's mother and his date of birth have given rise to much speculation. The editor of his correspondence, Muriel St Clare Byrne...

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Reginald, earl of Cornwall (d. 1175), magnate, was the illegitimate son of Henry I and Sibyl, daughter of Robert Corbet. It has been generally assumed that he was the Reginald de Dunstanville who held considerable lands in Wiltshire for which he had exemption from geld in 1130, but the ...