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À Lasco [Laski], John (1499–1560), evangelical reformer, was born in Lask, Poland, the second of three sons and brother to four daughters of Jarslov Laski (d. 1521?), voivode of Sieradz, and Susanna Bak (fl. 1484–1510), daughter of the Bakova-Gora councilman Zbigniew Bak...

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Bilney, Thomas (c. 1495–1531), evangelical reformer and martyr, known as Little Bilney on account of his short stature, was born in Norfolk, most likely at Norwich. Of his parents nothing is known, except that they survived him. Sent up to Cambridge at an early age (...

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Nicholas Bourbon (c. 1503–154950) by Hans Holbein the younger The Royal Collection © 2004 HM Queen Elizabeth II

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Bourbon, Nicholas (c. 1503–1549/50), poet and religious reformer, known as Nicholas Bourbon the elder to distinguish him from his namesake and nephew, was the son of Jean Bourbon, an ironmaster from Vandoeuvre in Champagne, and his wife, Marie Galliard (or Gaulier). He studied at the ...

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Cottisford [Cottesforde], Thomas (d. 1555), clergyman and evangelical reformer, was born at Winchester and studied at both Oxford and Cambridge. In his 'Epistle to an Englyshe Marchaunt' of Winchester, written from Marian exile, he thanked the addressee for his gifts 'whan I was a student at ...

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Garrard, Thomas (1498–1540), clergyman and protestant reformer, is first recorded in 1517, when at the age of nineteen he was admitted to Corpus Christi College, Oxford. He graduated BA in 1518 and became a fellow of Magdalen College in 1519. He incepted MA in 1524, and was BTh (probably of ...

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Haynes [Heynes], Simon (d. 1552), clergyman and religious reformer, was educated at Queens' College, Cambridge, graduating BA in 1515/16, MA in 1519, BTh in 1528, and DTh in 1531. He became a fellow of Queens' in 1516, and was president from 27 July 1528 to 1537. He had been ordained in February 1521, and on 28 November 1528 was admitted to the rectory of ...

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Knox, John (c. 1514–1572), religious reformer, was born at Giffordgate in Haddington. His mother was a Sinclair, a name he occasionally adopted as an alias when in hiding, and his father was William Knox, whose family had a long and proud tradition of service to the ...

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MacDowell [Maydland, Madwell, Maydwell], John (b. c. 1500, d. in or after 1566), Dominican friar and evangelical reformer, was born in Galloway, entered the Dominicans at an unknown date, and was created bachelor of theology by 1524, when the general chapter of his order recorded this fact; it is probable that he studied at ...

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Seton, Alexander (d. 1542), Dominican friar and evangelical reformer, was unusual among Scottish Dominicans in having noble parentage, being the son of Sir Alexander Seton of Touch and Tullibody and Elizabeth Erskine, daughter of Thomas, earl of Mar. He was not so unusual in his education, being recorded in the university rolls of ...

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Traheron, Bartholomew (c. 1510–1558?), protestant writer and reformer, is of uncertain origins, although he is thought to have been of Cornish stock. The chronology of his university career suggests that he was born about 1510. He was possibly the son of George Traheron...

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Pietro Martire Vermigli (1499–1562) by unknown artist, 1560 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Vermigli, Pietro Martire [Peter Martyr] (1499–1562), evangelical reformer, was born in Florence on 8 September 1499, the son of Stefano Vermigli (c.1456–c.1528) and Maria Fumantina (d. 1511). At his baptism he received the name Piero Mariano, possibly in honour of the contemporary Florentine preacher ...

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Wedderburn, James (c. 1495–1553), reformer and poet, was born in Dundee, the eldest son of James Wedderburn (d. 1514?), merchant 'at the West Kirk stile' in Dundee, and Janet Barrie. He matriculated at St Andrews University in 1514 and studied under ...

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Willock, John (d. 1585), religious reformer, was in early life a Dominican friar in Ayr, a town where his surname was commonly found. As a university graduate he was styled ‘master’, and he also held the degree of BTh, probably from Cologne. The Swiss evangelical ...