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Aberhart, William (1878–1943), politician and evangelist in Canada, was born in Hibbert township, near Seaforth, Perth county, Ontario, on 30 December 1878, the son of William Aberhart (who as a child had been brought from Germany) and his wife, Louisa Pepper, the daughter of an Englishman. He was educated at schools in ...

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Agnew, Sir Andrew, seventh baronet (1793–1849), promoter of Sabbatarian legislation, was born at Kinsale, Ireland, on 21 March 1793, into an ancient and distinguished family in Wigtownshire. He was a posthumous son, his father, Andrew Agnew, an army officer, having died on 11 September 1792. His mother, ...

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Balnaves, Henry (d. 1570), diplomat and religious reformer, is said by Calderwood to have come from Kirkcaldy and studied in Cologne. He returned to St Andrews, appearing on the rolls of St Salvator's College in 1527 as magister, the title by which he is usually designated, though where he received his MA degree is uncertain. He worked as a procurator in ...

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Broke, Thomas (b. c. 1513, d. in or after 1555), religious radical and member of parliament, was possibly the younger son of Thomas Brooke (or Cobham) of Reculver, Kent, or of Edward Broke of Aspall, Kent. His name was far from uncommon, and establishing his identity poses some difficulties. He was clearly not the ...

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Browne, Thomas, fourth Viscount Kenmare (1726–1795), landowner and politician, was born in April 1726, probably at Killarney, co. Kerry, the second of four children of Valentine Browne, third Viscount Kenmare (1695–1736), landowner, and his first wife, Honoria Butler (d. 1730), daughter of ...

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Campbell, Archibald, fifth earl of Argyll (1538–1573), magnate and protestant reformer, was the eldest son of Archibald Campbell, fourth earl of Argyll (1498–1558), and his first wife, Lady Helen Hamilton (d. in or before 1541), daughter of the first earl of Arran...

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Cargill, Donald [Daniel] (c. 1627–1681), field preacher and insurgent, was born at the farmhouse of Nether Cloquhat, Perthshire, the son of Lawrence Cargill (d. 1657), smallholder of Nether Cloquhat, and later notary at Rattray, and his wife, Marjory Blair. Initially destined for a career in the law ...

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Cormack, John (1894–1978), protestant agitator and local politician, was born on 7 July 1894 in Edinburgh, the eldest child of the four sons and three daughters of Donald Cormack (1865–1937), a clerk and former soldier, and his wife, Mary McPhail (c.1870–1951)...

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Fullarton, Adam (d. in or after 1595), religious activist and civic administrator, was born in Ayrshire into the family of Fullarton of Dreghorn. His family had links with the small group of Lollards of Kyle in the 1490s and was early converted to protestantism. ...

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Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand [known as Mahatma Gandhi] (1869–1948), political leader and religious and social reformer, was born in Porbandar, Kathiawar, western India, on 2 October 1869, to Karamchand Uttamchand Gandhi and his fourth wife, Putlibai: he was the youngest of the one daughter and three sons of the marriage....

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Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi [Mahatma Gandhi] (1869–1948) by Margaret Bourke-White, 1946 Köln, Museum Ludwig / Rheinisches Bildarchiv Köln

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Lord George Gordon (1751–1793) by R. Bran, pubd 1780 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Gordon, Lord George (1751–1793), political and religious agitator, was born on 26 December 1751 in Upper Grosvenor Street, London, the third son of Cosmo George Gordon, third duke of Gordon (1720/21–1752), a landowner, and his wife, Lady Catherine Gordon (1718–1779), the daughter of ...

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Guthrie, Alexander (d. 1582), civic administrator and religious activist, is first recorded on 10 January 1549, when he was admitted burgess and guild brother of Edinburgh. Nothing is known of his parentage or education. He became a lawyer who also engaged in trade, and was appointed common clerk of ...

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Halyburton, James (1518–1589), provost of Dundee and religious reformer, was the son of George Halyburton of Pitcur, a barony in the parish of Kettins, Angus. He entered the University of St Andrews in 1537 and graduated MA in March 1539. His brother Andrew...

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John Jebb (1736–1786) by Charles Knight, pubd 1782 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Jebb, John (1736–1786), religious and political reformer, was born on 16 February 1736 at Southampton Street, Covent Garden, London, the eldest son of Dr John Jebb (d. 1787), dean of Cashell, Ireland, and Ann, daughter of Daniel Gansel of Donyland Hall, near ...

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Jekyll, John (1611–1690), local politician, was born on 21 September 1611 at Bocking, Essex, the fourth son of the eight children of Thomas Jekyll (1570–1652), lawyer and antiquary, and Elizabeth Leake (1575–1658). John was apprenticed as a fishmonger in the City of London...

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O'Neill, Arthur George (1819–1896), reformer and minister of religion, was born in Chelmsford, Essex, in September 1819. His father, Arthur O'Neill, a coachmaker, was an Irish protestant refugee, and his mother, Ann, claimed descent from John Rogers, a protestant martyr in Mary Tudor's...

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Philipps, Sir John, fourth baronet (c. 1666–1737), politician and evangelical patron, was born about 1666 (the evidence of his funerary monument as to his date of birth being demonstrably unreliable). He was the second but first surviving son of Sir Erasmus Philipps, third baronet...