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Aldam, Thomas (1616?–1660), Quaker preacher and writer, was born in Warmsworth, near Doncaster, although no further details of his parentage are known. He was a relatively affluent yeoman. He married Mary Killam (d. 1660) in 1644, and the couple had at least one child, ...

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Horace Gundry Alexander (1889–1989) by Morland Braithwaite private collection

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Alexander, Horace Gundry (1889–1989), Quaker envoy and mediator, was born on 18 April 1889 at Croydon, Surrey, the youngest of four sons of Joseph Gundry Alexander (1848–1918), a Quaker barrister and advocate of international arbitration, and of Josephine Crosfield Alexander. He was educated at ...

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Ames, William (d. 1662), Quaker preacher, was born at Frampton Cotterell, near Bristol; his parents' names are not known. He was not well educated and when young was prone to lying, drunkenness, and licentiousness. During the civil war he joined the king's army and later served as a marine under ...

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Audland, John (c. 1630–1664), Quaker preacher, was born near Camsgill, Kendal, Westmorland, to 'parents and kindred of good repute' (Thomas Camm's testimony). A linen draper, he lived at Crosslands, near Preston Patrick, Westmorland. Early on he became an eminent preacher and '...

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Backhouse, Edward (1808–1879), Quaker minister and historical writer, was born at Darlington on 8 May 1808, the son of Edward and Mary Backhouse. He lived from his youth at Sunderland, where he was partner in the collieries and the bank with which his family had been connected for many years, although he took no active part in the business. He was fond of travel, a good amateur painter, and a student of natural history. He devoted himself chiefly to the promotion of philanthropic and religious causes. He was a generous supporter of various institutions in ...

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Alexander Gordon

revised by K. D. Reynolds

Barclay, Robert (1833–1876), Quaker and ecclesiastical historian, was born on 4 August 1833 at Croydon. He was the younger son of John Barclay (1797–1838), a descendant of the Quaker apologist Robert Barclay, and himself an expert on the early literature of the Society of Friends...

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Benson, Gervase (d. 1679), Quaker leader, lived at Haygarth in Sedbergh, Yorkshire, and Kendal, Westmorland; he also had a house at Borratt in Sedbergh. A notary public before 1640, and later commissary of the archdeaconry of Richmond at Kendal, Benson was the first ecclesiastical lawyer to join ...

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Bownas, Samuel (1677–1753), Quaker minister and writer, was born on 20 January 1677 at Shap, Westmorland, the second of the two children of Anthony Bownas (d. 1677), shoemaker, and his wife, Agnes. Samuel's father died within a month of his birth. Thereafter money was short and he and his brother received only a basic education in reading and writing. At thirteen ...

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Braithwaite, John (bap. 1633, d. c. 1680), Quaker apologist and missionary, was born at Cartmel, Lancashire, and baptized there on 24 March 1633; he was the son of James Braithwaite of Newton, in that parish.

Braithwaite became a Quaker in 1652 after meeting ...

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Braithwaite, Joseph Bevan (1818–1905), barrister and Quaker minister, was born on 21 June 1818 in Highgate, Kendal; with his twin sister he was the youngest of the nine children of Isaac Braithwaite (1781–1861), dyestuff manufacturer and drysalter, and Anna Braithwaite, both parents being of long-standing Quaker families. His mother, ...

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W. E. A. Axon

revised by Philip Carter

Brandwood, James (1739–1826), Quaker minister, was born on 11 November 1739 at New House, Entwistle, near Rochdale, where his parents were yeoman farmers. In adulthood Brandwood practised as a land surveyor and conveyancer, and is also said to have acted as the steward of the ...

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Brown, Henton (1697/8–1775), Quaker minister and banker, of unknown parentage, was born in London. He was educated by Friends, and in 1718 he married Sarah, of whom further details are unknown, in an Anglican ceremony, contrary to the beliefs of the society. The couple repented this action and their acknowledgement of wrongdoing was accepted by the society on 20 January 1720. The couple had eleven children, many of whom died in infancy....

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Francis Bugg (1640–1727) by Frederick Hendrick van Hove, 1700 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Bugg, Francis (1640–1727), Quaker apostate, was born at Mildenhall, Suffolk, on 10 March 1640 and baptized on 14 March. His father was Robert (d. c.1667), the second son of Francis and Margaret Bugg; his mother, Joan, the daughter of Thomas and ...

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Burnyeat, John (1631–1690), Quaker minister, was born at Crabtreebeck, near Loweswater, Cumberland. Beyond his occupation as a farmer, little is known of his life before George Fox convinced him of Quakerism in 1653.

Until 1657 John Burnyeat limited his religious activities to attending meetings and occasionally speaking publicly, then became more active by disrupting Anglican services to espouse the Quaker faith. In 1658 he tried unsuccessfully to spread Quakerism in ...

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Burrough, Edward (1633–1663), Quaker activist and writer, was born at Underbarrow, near Kendal, on 1 March 1633 and baptized in Kendal on 3 March, the son of James Burrough (d. 1658), a farmer from Underbarrow. Nothing is known of his mother, except that she died in 1658, or of his other siblings. Of ...

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Camm, John (1605–1657), Quaker preacher, was born at Camsgill, near Kendal, Westmorland. His parentage and education were of 'honest' and 'good report' and 'as good as any of that degree in that part of the country' (...

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Camm, Thomas (1640/41–1708), Quaker preacher and writer, was born at Camsgill, Preston Patrick, Westmorland, the son of John Camm (1605–1657), a yeoman, and his wife, Mabel (1605?–1692), themselves both Quakers. He received a good education at the hands of his father, whose '...

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Caton, William (1636–1665), Quaker preacher, details of whose parentage and early childhood are unknown, was probably brought up in north-west England in an orthodox Calvinist environment of prayer, sermon, and scripture. At fourteen he was taken by his father to Swarthmoor Hall, near ...