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Abendana, Jacob (c. 1630–1685), leader of the Sephardi Jewish community in London, was born in Spain and was taken with his brother Isaac Abendana to Hamburg, Germany, as a child. Jacob studied at the Yeshiva de los Pintos at Rotterdam, and at the age of twenty-five he was already a rabbi in ...

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Aberhart, William (1878–1943), politician and evangelist in Canada, was born in Hibbert township, near Seaforth, Perth county, Ontario, on 30 December 1878, the son of William Aberhart (who as a child had been brought from Germany) and his wife, Louisa Pepper, the daughter of an Englishman. He was educated at schools in ...

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Abramsky, Yehezkel (1886–1976), rabbinic scholar and Orthodox Jewish leader, was born on or about 7 February 1886 in Dashkovtsy, near Most and Grodno, Lithuania, the third child and eldest son of Mordecai Zalman Abramsky, a local timber merchant, and his wife, Freydel Goldin...

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Adderley, James Granville (1861–1942), Church of England clergyman and Christian socialist, was born on 1 July 1861 at Hams Hall, Warwickshire, the fifth and youngest son of Charles Bowyer Adderley, first Baron Norton (1814–1905), and his wife, Julia Anne Eliza (d. 1887)...

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James Granville Adderley (1861–1942) by Lafayette, 1932 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Æthelwine [Ethelwine, Æthelwine Dei Amicus] (d. 992), magnate and founder of Ramsey Abbey, Huntingdonshire, was the fourth and youngest son of Æthelstan, known as the Half-King (932–956), and his wife, Ælfwyn (d. 986). He was a few years older than the atheling ...

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Agnew, Sir Andrew, seventh baronet (1793–1849), promoter of Sabbatarian legislation, was born at Kinsale, Ireland, on 21 March 1793, into an ancient and distinguished family in Wigtownshire. He was a posthumous son, his father, Andrew Agnew, an army officer, having died on 11 September 1792. His mother, ...

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Ahmad Khan, Sir Saiyid [Syed Ahmed Khan] (1817–1898), Muslim leader in India, was born on 17 October 1817 in Khwaja Farid's haveli (mansion) near the Tiraha Bahram Khan in Delhi, the youngest of the three children (two boys and one girl) of ...

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Aigueblanche, Peter d' [Peter de Aqua Blanca] (d. 1268), bishop of Hereford and royal councillor, was descended from the family of Briançon, holders of the lordship of Aigueblanche (Savoie) in the Tarentaise or valley of the upper Isère, dependants of the counts of Savoy...

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Peter d' Aigueblanche (d. 1268) tomb effigy by permission of the Dean and Chapter of Hereford Cathedral

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Airmyn [Ayreminne], William (d. 1336), administrator and bishop of Norwich, was the son of Adam and Matilda Airmyn, and probably came from the hamlet of Airmyn, near Selby, in Yorkshire, one of a large group of men from that region to obtain prominence in government service. First recorded as an attorney in ...

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Aiscough [Ayscough], William (c. 1395–1450), administrator and bishop of Salisbury, was the son of Robert Aiscough, of Potgrange, near Masham, Yorkshire, and brother of Robert, who became dean of the Chapel Royal. Ordained in 1415, he was master of arts by 1423 and doctor of theology by 1432, both probably of ...

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Alcock, John (1430–1500), administrator and bishop of Ely, was born at Beverley, Yorkshire, the son of William Alcock of Hull. Alcock received his early schooling in the grammar school attached to Beverley Minster, and then attended Cambridge University. DCL by 1459, he began his career in local diocesan administration in ...

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Alen, John (1476–1534), archbishop of Dublin, is of unknown parentage. He received his undergraduate training at Gonville Hall, Cambridge, between 1491 and 1495, although there is an unverified tradition that he studied at the University of Oxford before migrating to Cambridge. After receiving his BA in 1494–5, he obtained a fellowship from ...

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Alex, (Edward) Ephraim (1800–1882), founder of the Jewish Board of Guardians, was born on 12 December 1800 in St Katherine in the City of London. He was the eldest surviving son of Solomon Alex, dentist, of 11 Finsbury Place, Finsbury, and 21 Jewry Street, Aldgate...

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Alexander, David Lindo (1842–1922), lawyer and Jewish community leader, was born at 6 South Street, London, on 5 October 1842, second son in the large family of solicitor Joshua Alexander and his wife, Jemima (b. 1819), one of eighteen children of David Abarbanel Lindo...

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Abdullah Yusuf Ali (1872–1953) by Lafayette, 1930 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (1872–1953), Indian civil servant and Islamic scholar, was born on 4 April 1872 in Surat, Gujarat, India. His father, Yusuf Ali Allahbuksh, otherwise Khan Bahadur Yusuf Ali, a Shi'i in the Dawoodi Bohra tradition, had abandoned the traditional occupation of his community, business, and entered instead the police force, being presented on retirement with the title of ...

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S. V. FitzGerald

revised by Roger T. Stearn

Ameer Ali, Saiyid (1849–1928), judge and Muslim leader in India, was born on 6 April 1849 at Chinsura, Bengal, the fourth son of Saiyid Saadat Ali Khan (who died of cholera in 1856) of Mohan, Oudh, and his wife, the daughter of Shamsuddin Khan...

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Appleby, John (d. 1389), dean of St Paul's, London, and diplomat, exemplifies at once the excesses of careerism and the intellectual sophistication that characterized the upper ranks of the fourteenth-century English church. He was a native of Appleby, Westmorland, and the north of ...