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Adams, Maurice (1850–1935), socialist and moral philosopher, was the youngest child of John Botroele Adams, a general agent who specialized in building and insurance work. His elder sister Mary had been born nine years earlier in Birmingham. After leaving school, Adams qualified as a chartered insurance broker and joined his father's firm, which became ...

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Adderley, James Granville (1861–1942), Church of England clergyman and Christian socialist, was born on 1 July 1861 at Hams Hall, Warwickshire, the fifth and youngest son of Charles Bowyer Adderley, first Baron Norton (1814–1905), and his wife, Julia Anne Eliza (d. 1887)...

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James Granville Adderley (1861–1942) by Lafayette, 1932 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Ball, Sidney (1857–1918), socialist and educational reformer, was born on 20 April 1857 at Perrott House, Bridge Street, Pershore, Worcestershire, the second of seven children of Edwin Ball (d. 1867), solicitor, and his wife, Mary Ann (d. 1899), daughter of Owen Ffoulkes...

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Barmby, (John) Goodwyn (1820–1881), Chartist and socialist, was born at Yoxford in Suffolk and was baptized on 12 November 1820. His father, John, a solicitor, married to Julia, died when he was fourteen years old. Goodwyn—he never used his first Christian name—had no formal school education but read widely. He eschewed the professions and followed a career of social and political radicalism, reputedly addressing small audiences of agricultural labourers when aged sixteen....

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Boswell, James Edward Buchanan (1906–1971), painter and socialist, was born on 9 June 1906 in Westport, New Zealand. His father, Edward Blair Buchanan Boswell (1860–1933), who was born in Stewarton, Scotland, was deputy headmaster of the local high school, an artistic dilettante and amateur watercolourist; his mother, ...

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James Edward Buchanan Boswell (1906–1971) self-portrait, 1950 courtesy Estate of the Artist & John Gainsborough / Tate Gallery Archive

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Bray, John Francis (1809–1897), socialist and writer, was born on 26 June 1809 in Washington, DC, USA, the eldest of seven children of John Bray, comedian and singer, and his wife, Sarah Hunt. His ancestors were primarily farmers and cloth manufacturers who had worked in or near ...

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Buchanan, Robert (1813–1866), socialist, was born at Ayr. After working as a tailor, he joined the Huddersfield Owenites in 1837 and between 1838 and 1842 was a peripatetic socialist lecturer and missionary. Despite his socialism, Buchanan was also a contributor to the Chartist ...

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Maker: unknown engraver

Robert Buchanan (1813–1866) by unknown engraver © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Campbell, Alexander (1796–1870), Owenite socialist and journalist, was born near the point of Skipness, in Kintyre, Argyll. He was apprenticed as a joiner in Glasgow and set up his own business, which he pursued with some success. He was influenced early in his life by the ideas of ...

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Edward Carpenter (1844–1929) by Roger Fry, 1894 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Carpenter, Edward (1844–1929), campaigner for homosexual equality and socialist writer, was born on 29 August 1844 at 45 Brunswick Square, Brighton, Sussex, the third son of Charles Carpenter RN (1797–1882) and his wife, Sophia, the daughter of Thomas Wilson RN of Walthamstow. The ...

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Champion, Henry Hyde (1859–1928), socialist and journalist, was born on 22 January 1859 in Poona, India, the son of Major-General James Hyde Champion and his wife, Henrietta Susan, née Urquhart. He was sent to England to be educated at Marlborough College before entering the ...

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Clarke, William (1852–1901), journalist and socialist, was born on 22 November 1852 in Norwich, the son of John Scott Clarke, a small businessman of Scottish background, and his wife, Mary Ann Pigg. He attended King Edward VI Commercial School in Norwich and then a private school in ...

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Connell, James [Jim] (1852–1929), socialist and writer of The Red Flag, was born on 27 March 1852 in McCormack's Yard, Kilskyre, Crossakiel, co. Meath, Ireland, the eldest of thirteen children born to Thomas Connell, farm labourer, and his wife, Ann Shaw. It is likely that he was born ...

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Connolly, James (1868–1916), socialist and Irish revolutionary, was born on 5 June 1868 at 107 Cowgate, Edinburgh, the youngest of three sons (there were no daughters) of Irish immigrants John Connolly (1832/3–1900), manure carter of Edinburgh, and his wife, Mary (1832/3–1890), daughter of ...

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Deakin, Joseph Thomas (1858–1937), railway worker and socialist, was born at Wednesbury, Staffordshire, on 11 August 1858, the son of Charles Deakin, a blacksmith, and his wife, Maria, née Middleton, the daughter of a labourer. He was educated at Old Park British School, Wednesbury...

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Derfel, Robert Jones [formerly Robert Jones] (1824–1905), Welsh nationalist and socialist, was born Robert Jones at Y Foty, his grandfather's farm, near Bethel, Merioneth, on 24 July 1824, the second son of Edward Jones, a farmer and cattle dealer, and his wife, ...

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Frederick Lewis Donaldson (1860–1953) by Bassano, 1936 © National Portrait Gallery, London