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Anders, Władysław (1892–1970), army officer and politician, was born on 11 August 1892 in Błonie, in the county of Kutno, in Russian Poland. The eldest of four sons of Catholic parents, he attended secondary school in Warsaw, and moved with the family to ...

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Sir Alexander John Ball, baronet (1756–1809) by unknown engraver, pubd 1803 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Ball, Sir Alexander John, baronet (1756–1809), naval officer and politician in Malta, was born on 22 July 1756 at Ebworth Park, Painswick, Gloucestershire, the son of Robert Ball (1714/15–1766), high sheriff of that county, and Mary, née Dickinson. He attended Market House School...

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Berezovsky, Boris Abramovich (1946–2013), entrepreneur and politician, was born in Moscow on 23 January 1946, the son of Abram Markovich Berezovsky (1911–1979), a Jewish civil engineer, and his wife, Anna Aleksandrovna, née Gelman (1923–2013), a nurse. His life started in academic obscurity. After flunking his mathematics examinations for ...

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Bernstorff, Andreas Gottlieb von, Baron Bernstorff in the nobility of the Holy Roman empire (1649–1726), politician and diplomat, was born on 2 March 1649 ns in Ratzeburg, then in the duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg, in northern Germany, the second son of Andreas von Bernstorff (1604–1655)...

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S. E. Fryer

revised by Matthew Lee

Blind, Karl (1826–1907), political refugee and author, was born of middle-class parents in Mannheim, in the grand duchy of Baden, Germany, on 4 September 1826. He was educated at the Lyceum, Mannheim, and then at Karlsruhe, where he won gold and silver medals; he proceeded with a scholarship to ...

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Boffa, Sir Paul (1890–1962), prime minister of Malta, was born in Vittoriosa, Malta, on 30 June 1890, the son of Carmelo Boffa and his wife, Carmela, née Serracino. After attending the lyceum in Valletta and the University of Malta he graduated as a medical doctor in 1913. During the First World War he served with the ...

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Boxshall, Edwin George (1897–1984), Balkan specialist and intelligence officer, was born on 4 February 1897 in Bucharest, the only son and younger child of William George Boxshall (d. 1918), a butcher's son who ran a small ironworks in Romania, and his wife, ...

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Deluc, Jean-André (1727–1817), natural philosopher and politician, was born on 8 February 1727 in Geneva, the elder of the two children of François Deluc, a wealthy watch manufacturer. He was educated by his father, who had published defences of Christianity against Mandeville and other rationalistic writers, and was active in the stormy arena of Genevan politics. ...

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D'Ivernois, Sir Francis (1757–1842), political exile and politician in Geneva, was born François d'Ivernois at Geneva on 9 April 1757, the fifth of eight children of François-Henri d'Ivernois (1722–1778), merchant, and his wife, Marianne Dehors (1727–1796). During the 1760s his father became a leading figure in the ...

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Duroveray, Jacques-Antoine (1747–1814), political exile and politician in Geneva, was born at Geneva into a poor labouring family. Little is known about Duroveray's early life, aside from his education in law at the Collège de Genève and his qualification as an advocate in 1771. In spite of his youth he was named from 1766 among the leaders of the ...

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Emin, Emin Joseph (1726–1809), army officer in the East India Company and Armenian nationalist, was born in Hamadan, Persia, the son of Hovsep (also known as Joseph; d. 1777), merchant. During Emin's youth internecine wars killed his mother (in 1734) and next youngest brother, scattering his family. about 1735 ...

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Foscolo, Ugo (1778–1827), poet and Italian patriot, was born on 6 February 1778 on the Ionian island of Zante, then under the control of Venice, the eldest of the four children of Andrea Foscolo (1754–1788), an Italian physician, and his wife, Diamantina Spatis...

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Granville, Augustus Bozzi (1783–1872), physician and Italian patriot, was born in Milan on 7 October 1783, the third son of Carlo Bozzi (1742/3–1826), postmaster-general of the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom, and his wife, Maria Antonietta Rapazzini. His father's family was connected to the Bonapartes in ...

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Sir Joshua Abraham Hassan (1915–1997) by unknown photographer, c. 1950 Getty Images

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Hassan, Sir Joshua Abraham (1915–1997), chief minister of Gibraltar, was born in Gibraltar on 21 August 1915, the son of Abraham M. Hassan, a cloth merchant, from a distinguished merchant family of Moroccan Sephardi extraction that had first settled in Gibraltar in 1728. He was educated by the Christian brothers of ...

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Sir James Philip Lacaita (1813–1895) by Georgio Matarrese, 1894 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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H. R. Tedder

revised by H. C. G. Matthew

Lacaita, Sir James Philip (1813–1895), scholar and politician, the only son of Diego Lacaita of Manduria, in the province of Lecce, Italy, and of Agata Conti of Agnone in the Molise, was born at Manduria on 4 October 1813. He took a law degree at the ...

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John Law (bap. 1671, d. 1729) attrib. Alexis-Simon Belle, c. 1715–20 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Law, John (bap. 1671, d. 1729), finance minister in France, was born in Edinburgh and baptized on 21 April 1671. His father, William Law (d. 1683), a successful goldsmith and banker, acquired the estate of Lauriston, a few miles from Edinburgh. William...