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revised by Alastair W. Massie

Bell, John (1746/7–1798), army officer and inventor, was born in the parish of St Cuthbert's, Carlisle, the eldest son of William Bell, hatter, of Botchergate, Carlisle. He was baptized at St Cuthbert's Church on 22 February 1747. After working in the family business, ...


Freeburn, James (1808–1876), army officer and inventor of shell fuses, was born in the parish of St Cuthbert's, Midlothian. At an early age he was apprenticed to a baker. At the age of seventeen he enlisted in the 7th battalion of the Royal Artillery...


Livens, William Howard (1889–1964), army officer and inventor of oil and gas weapons, was born at Lincoln on 28 March 1889, the only son of Frederick Howard Livens, chief engineer of the firm which became Ruston and Hornsby, and his wife, Priscilla Mary Abbott...


Henry Shrapnel (1761–1842) attrib. Thomas Arrowsmith, 1817 from the collection of The Royal Artillery Institution, Woolwich


Shrapnel, Henry (1761–1842), army officer and inventor of the Shrapnel shell, was born on 3 June 1761, the youngest son of the nine children of Zachariah Shrapnel (1724–1796) from Midway Manor House, Bradford-on-Avon, Wiltshire, and his wife, Lydia (née Needham). The family name appears as ...