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Benmohel, Nathan Lazarus (1803–1869), Hebrew and German scholar, was born in Hamburg, Germany, son of Rabbi Elieza Lazi (1741–1841), presiding judge, or dayan, of Posen, and the united congregations of Altona, Hamburg, and Wandsbeck. His mother was the daughter of Rabbi Todros Munk...

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Bernays, Adolphus (1794–1864), German scholar, was born Aaron Jacob Bernays on 18 May 1794 in Mainz, Germany, the fifth of eight children of a well-to-do Jewish innkeeper, Jacob Bernays (1747–1817), and his wife, Martha, née Welsch (b. 1761). The wider Bernays family included many notable figures, among them his brother ...

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Bithell, Jethro (1878–1962), German scholar, was born on 29 January 1878 at Birchall Farm, Hindley, near Wigan, Lancashire, the son of John Bithell, a collier, and his wife, Harriet, née Cubbin. He was educated at Wigan Mining School and was originally intended for a career in business. However, he attended ...

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Boyd, James [Jimmy] (1891–1970), German scholar, was born on 27 December 1891 in Gardiner's Close, Lockerbie, Dumfries, the only son of Peter Boyd, master blacksmith, and his wife, Mary, née Tennant. His schooling was at Lockerbie Academy and in 1909 he was awarded an open scholarship to the ...

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Branscombe, Peter John (1929–2008), German scholar and musicologist, was born on 7 December 1929 at 60 High Street, Sittingbourne, Kent, the elder son of John Reginald Branscombe (1891–1965), bank manager, and his wife, Winifred Mary, née Jones (1901–1994). His schooling at Dulwich College...

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Breul, Karl Hermann (1860–1932), German scholar, was born in Hanover on 10 August 1860, the son of Ernst Breul, merchant, and his wife, Agnes. He attended the Lyceum II there, proceeding to the study of modern languages at the University of Tübingen. After military service he transferred to the ...

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Bruford, Walter Horace (1894–1988), German and Russian scholar, was born at 4 Alexandra Street, Broughton, Salford, on 14 July 1894, the son of Francis James Bruford, drainage inspector, and his wife, Annie, née Fox. He attended Manchester grammar school, where he received a thorough grounding in both the classics and modern languages. He then went with a scholarship to ...

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Carlyle, Thomas (1803–1855), apostle of the Catholic Apostolic church and German scholar, was born on 17 July 1803 at King's Grange, near Castle Douglas, Kirkcudbrightshire, of an old Dumfriesshire family. His father, William Carlyle (1759–1824), a lawyer, married in 1802 Margaret Heriot, widow of ...

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Closs, August Max (1898–1990), German scholar, was born on 9 August 1898 at Neumarkt, Styria, Austria, the son of Alois Closs (1852–1909), an official at the local law court, and his wife, Rosa, née Halm (1872–1960). After schooling at the Fürstbischöfliches Gymnasium, Graz...

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Fiedler, Hermann Georg (1862–1945), German scholar, was born on 28 April 1862 at Zittau, Saxony, the second of three children of August Fiedler (1837–1912) and Minna Grossmann (1842–1894). His father was Musikdirektor at Zittau and his elder brother (August) Max Fiedler (1859–1939) became one of the most renowned conductors of his time. His sister ...

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Forster, Leonard Wilson (1913–1997), German scholar, was born in London on 30 March 1913, the son of Edward James Forster, businessman, and his wife, Linda Charlotte, née Rogers. After Marlborough College, he read modern and medieval languages at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, from 1931 to 1934, little imagining when he attended the funeral of the first Schröder professor of German, ...

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Ganz, Peter Felix (1920–2006), German scholar, was born on 3 November 1920 in Mainz, Germany, the son of Hermann Friedrich Ignaz Ganz, who was company secretary in the family carpet business, and his wife, Charlotte (Lotte), née Fromberg. Both parents had doctorates in law. His father's was a long-established ...

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Hatto, Arthur Thomas (1910–2010), scholar of German literature and of archaic poetry, was born at 299a Stanstead Road, Forest Hill, London, on 11 February 1910, the only child of Thomas Hatto (1888–1963), solicitor's clerk, and his wife, Alice Maud, née Walters (1885–1976), a nurse. At the age of thirteen he won a scholarship to ...

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Heller, Erich (1911–1990), German scholar, was born on 27 March 1911 in Komotau, in what was then the German-speaking part of northern Bohemia, in Austria-Hungary, the son of Alfred Heller, a doctor, and his wife, Elsa. The family was of Jewish origin. He became a citizen of ...

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Leishman, James Blair (1902–1963), English scholar and translator, was born on 8 May 1902 at Craigard, Thursby, Cumberland, the eldest son of Matthew Shaw Leishman (1858–1907), a tea merchant, and his wife, Sarah, née Crossfield (1874–1930). He attended Earnseal School, Arnside, Westmorland, and, from the age of fourteen, ...

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Luke, Frederic Davey [David] (1921–2005), German scholar and translator, was born at Emsworth, Linden Road, Clevedon, Somerset, on 13 June 1921, the son of Thomas Davey Luke, a doctor, and his wife, Jane Thompson, née Pattison. His father died young, and Luke (known in the family as ...

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Mason, Eudo Colecestra (1901–1969), German scholar, was born in Colchester, Essex, on 26 September 1901, the third son of Ernest Nathan Mason (1867–1935), engineer's draughtsman, and his wife, Bertha Betsy, née Kitton (1872–1940), a governess. His father, who had published a study entitled ...

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Meijer, Reinder Pieter [Rein] (1926–1993), Dutch scholar, was born on 2 January 1926 in Zwolle, the Netherlands, the son of a head teacher. Little is known about his youth and early years, most probably because both he and his brother, the writer Henk Romijn Meijer (1929–2008)...

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Norman, Frederick (1897–1968), German scholar, was born Ferdinand Krott on 10 November 1897 at 378 Lillie Road, Fulham, London, the second child and eldest of three sons of a German couple, Johann Heinrich (Harry) Krott (1853/4–1906) and his wife, Clara Jane (Jenny), née...

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Oswald, Eugene (1826–1912), teacher and writer, was born in Heidelberg on 16 October 1826, the youngest of the five children of Carl August Oswald, a publisher in Heidelberg, and his wife, Christiana Augusta Brédé, who was of Huguenot descent. Though of a scholarly bent, ...