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Abendana, Isaac (d. 1699), Hebraist and book collector, was born in Spain and was taken at an early age to Hamburg, Germany. By 1660 he had completed rabbinical studies and by his own account sought the 'wisdom of medicine' (Katz, The Abendana brothers, 36...

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Abraham, Roy Clive (1890–1963), scholar of African languages and colonial administrator, was born on 16 December 1890 in Melbourne, Australia, the second son of Isaac Abraham (1849-1918) and his wife Amy nee Soloman (b. 1861). From a Jewish background, he studied at ...

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Abramsky, Yehezkel (1886–1976), rabbinic scholar and Orthodox Jewish leader, was born on or about 7 February 1886 in Dashkovtsy, near Most and Grodno, Lithuania, the third child and eldest son of Mordecai Zalman Abramsky, a local timber merchant, and his wife, Freydel Goldin...

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Abudacnus, Josephus (fl. 1595–1643), scholar of oriental languages, was born in Cairo. His parents were Copts, his father probably connected with the Ottoman administration. His Arabic name, Yusuf ibn Abu Dhaqn, was Latinized as Josephus Abudacnus (or Barbatus). In 1595, after a rudimentary education in ...

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Adams, George (b. 1697/8), translator and writer, was the son of George Adams (d. 1724?), clergyman (probably rector of Upton, Huntingdonshire, 1703–24). He was educated at Peterborough School and at St John's College, Cambridge, where he was admitted, aged eighteen, as a sizar on 23 May 1716 and graduated BA in 1720 and MA in 1735; in 1729 he became a fellow of the college. He was ordained deacon in ...

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H. R. Tedder

revised by C. M. Fraser

Adamson, John (1787–1855), antiquary and Portuguese scholar, the last surviving son of Lieutenant Cuthbert Adamson RN and his second wife, Mary Huthwaite, was born on 13 September 1787 at his father's house in Gateshead. After education at the Royal Grammar School, Newcastle upon Tyne...

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Addison, John (fl. 1735–1736), translator, evidently received a good education, though nothing is known about his family or his life other than the fact that he published in London two books of translation from the classics. The first, The works of Anacreon translated into English verse, with notes explanatory and poetical, to which are added the odes, fragments, and epigrams of Sappho, with the original Greek plac'd opposite to the translation...

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Adgar [William] (fl. 1150x1200), Anglo-Norman translator, was baptized Adgar but reveals that he was more commonly known as William; Trouvère (roughly meaning ‘poet’) is a later and inauthentic epithet. As the author of the first vernacular rendering of the miracles of the Virgin Mary...

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Alday, John (fl. 1566–1579), translator, whose origins are obscure, is described by Tanner as a resident in London (Tanner, Bibl. Brit.-hib., 25). He seems to have been preoccupied in particular with the state of man, as evidenced by his principal work, ...

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Aldred, Cyril (1914–1991), Egyptologist and art historian, was born on 19 February 1914 at 41 Beltran Road, Fulham, London, the fifth of the six children of Frederick Aldred, a civil servant, and his wife, Lilian Ethel Underwood. Educated at the Sloane School, Chelsea...

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Alfonsi, Petrus (fl. 1106–1126), scholar and translator of scientific works, was born in northern Spain, to Jewish parents. He was baptized a Christian on 29 June 1106 in Huesca, Aragon, with the names of the apostle on whose feast day the baptism took place and of his godfather, ...

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Allchin, (Frank) Raymond (1923–2010), archaeologist and scholar of early Indian culture, was born on 9 July 1923 at The Briars, Northwick Park Road, Harrow, Middlesex, the second son and third of four surviving children of Frank MacDonald Allchin (1891–1977), physician, and his wife, ...

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John Willoughby Tarleton Allen (1904–1979) by unknown photographer, c.1950 by kind permission of Hubert J. B. Allen

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Allen, John Willoughby Tarleton (1904–1979), colonial administrator and Swahili scholar, was born at Chalfont St Peter, Buckinghamshire, on 14 November 1904, the second child and only son of the vicar, the Revd Roland Allen (1868–1947), writer and theologian, and his wife, Mary Beatrice, ...

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Allibond, Peter (1559/60–1629), Church of England clergyman and translator, was born at Wardington, Oxfordshire, where his family had lived for many generations; his parents' names are not known. He became a student at Magdalen Hall, Oxford, in 1578 (according to Anthony Wood): he matriculated from there, aged twenty, on 15 April 1580, graduated BA on 21 February 1582, and proceeded MA on 6 July 1585. After some years spent in foreign travel, he was ordained. In 1592 ...

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Andrewe, Laurence (fl. c. 1520–1530), printer and translator, describes himself in the prologue to his edition of the Hortus sanitatis ([1527]), as 'of the towne of Calis' (sig. Aiir). Andrewe published seven surviving works in London between 1527 and 1529 'at the sygne of the golden crosse' in ...

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Andrews, Robert (fl. 1747–1766), translator, was born into a nonconformist family which had lived for nearly two hundred years at Little Lever and at Rivington Hall, near Bolton, Lancashire. Nothing further is known of his parents. He was educated by Dr Caleb Rotheram...

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Anslay, Brian (d. 1536), administrator and translator, about whose parentage and origins little is known, participated, as yeoman of the wine cellar, in Henry VII's funeral procession and in Henry VIII's coronation ceremonies in 1509. In 1521 his translation of Christine de Pisan's...

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Aquilecchia, Giovanni [Gianni] (1923–2001), Italian scholar, was born on 28 November 1923 in Nettuno, a city of approximately 40,000 inhabitants near Anzio, south of Rome, the son of Vincenzo Aquilecchia, an officer in the Italian army, and his wife, Maria Letizia, née Filibeck...

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Arberry, Arthur John (1905–1969), orientalist, was born at 37 Beeston Street, Buckland, Portsmouth, on 12 May 1905, fourth of the five children of William Arberry, signal boatswain in the Royal Navy, and his wife, Sarah Ann Bailey. Arberry won a scholarship to Portsmouth grammar school...