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Alexander, Albert Victor, Earl Alexander of Hillsborough (1885–1965), politician and co-operator, was born at 59 George Street, Weston-super-Mare, Somerset, on 1 May 1885, the son of Albert Alexander (d. 1886), a blacksmith, and his wife, Eliza Jane, née Thatcher. On his father's death his mother moved back to her parents' house in ...

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S. V. FitzGerald

revised by Roger T. Stearn

Ameer Ali, Saiyid (1849–1928), judge and Muslim leader in India, was born on 6 April 1849 at Chinsura, Bengal, the fourth son of Saiyid Saadat Ali Khan (who died of cholera in 1856) of Mohan, Oudh, and his wife, the daughter of Shamsuddin Khan...

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Baxter, James Keir (1926–1972), poet and publicist, was born on 29 June 1926 at 97 Elm Row, Dunedin, Otago, New Zealand, the son of Archibald McColl Learmond Baxter (1881–1970), a small farmer descended from immigrant Scottish highlanders, and his wife, Millicent Amiel Macmillan Brown (1888–1984)...

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Bentwich, Norman de Mattos (1883–1971), colonial official and exponent of Jewish ideals, was born in London on 28 February 1883, the elder son and second of eleven children of Herbert Bentwich (1856–1932) and his wife, Susannah, daughter of Joseph Solomon, leather merchant, and sister of ...

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Brockway, (Archibald) Fenner, Baron Brockway (1888–1988), politician and campaigner, was born on 1 November 1888 in Calcutta, the only son and eldest of three children of the Revd William George Brockway, London Missionary Society missionary, and his wife, Frances Elizabeth, daughter of William Abbey...

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Burritt, Elihu (1810–1879), peace campaigner and American consul, was born in New Britain, Connecticut, on 8 December 1810, the son of Elihu Burritt (d. 1827), a farmer and cobbler, and his wife, Elizabeth Hinsdale, a Calvinist. While earning his living as a blacksmith, ...

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Goldsmid, Sir Isaac Lyon, first baronet (1778–1859), financier and Jewish communal leader, was born in London on 13 January 1778, the eldest of the six children of Asher Goldsmid, a bullion broker, and his wife, Rachel, née Keyser. Asher's father, Aaron, had settled in ...

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Haw, Brian William (1949–2011), anti-war campaigner, was born on 7 January 1949 in Wanstead Hospital, east London, the son of Robert William Haw (1925–1964), railway clerk, and his wife, Iris Marie, née Hall. At the time of his birth registration his parents lived at ...

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Holyoake, George Jacob (1817–1906), freethinker and co-operator, was born at 1 Inge Street, Birmingham, on 13 April 1817, the second of thirteen children and eldest son of George Holyoake (1790–1853), a printer, and Catherine Groves (1792–1867), a horn-button maker. He received a basic education at a dame-school and ...

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Kidd, Ronald Hubert (1889–1942), founder of the National Council for Civil Liberties, was born at 6 Montpelier Row, Blackheath, London, on 11 July 1889, the son of Leonard Joseph Kidd (1858–1926), surgeon, and his wife, Alice Maud, née Peek (1862–1945). He entered University College, London...

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Montefiore, Sir Moses Haim (1784–1885), financier and Jewish community leader, the eldest son of Joseph Elias Montefiore, a London businessman, and Rachel, the daughter of Abraham Lumbroso de Mattos Mocatta, was born in Leghorn, Italy (during a visit there by his parents), on 24 October 1784. On his father's side ...

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Pratt, Hodgson (1824–1907), peace campaigner and co-operative movement activist, born at Bath on 10 January 1824, was the eldest of five sons of Samuel Peace Pratt and his wife, Susanna Martha Hodgson (d. 1875). After education at East India College, Haileybury, where he won a prize for an English essay in his first term, he matriculated at ...

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Raistrick, Arthur (1896–1991), industrial archaeologist and pacifist, was born in Saltaire, Yorkshire, on 16 August 1896, the son of George Raistrick, engineer, and his wife, Minnie, née Bell. This model industrial village had been built by manufacturer Titus Salt, in whose mill Arthur Raistrick's...

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Richardson, Lewis Fry (1881–1953), mathematician and pacifist, was born on 11 October 1881 at The Gables, Elswick Road, Newcastle upon Tyne, the youngest of the seven children of David Richardson (1835–1913) and his wife, Catherine (1838–1919), daughter of Robert and Jane Fry of ...

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Rotblat, Sir Joseph (1908–2005), scientist and peace activist, was born Jósef Rotblat on 4 November 1908 in Warsaw, the eldest of five surviving children (two others died in infancy) of Zygmunt, otherwise Zelman, Rotblat, the owner of a haulage company specializing in the paper trade, and his wife, ...

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Salaman, Redcliffe Nathan (1874–1955), geneticist and Jewish activist, was born Nathan Redcliffe Salaman, at 100 Redcliffe Gardens, Kensington, London, on 12 September 1874, the ninth of the fifteen children of Myer Salaman (1835/6–1896), a wealthy ostrich feather merchant, and his wife, Sarah Soloman (1844–1931)...

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Siddiqui, Kalim (1933–1996), journalist and Muslim activist, was born on 2 July 1933 near Hyderabad, Deccan, India, one of a family of ten children. While he was still a small child the family moved to Sultanpur, a town between Allahabad and Fyzabad in ...

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Southall, Joseph Edward (1861–1944), painter and pacifist, was born on 23 August 1861 in Albert Street, Nottingham, the son of Joseph Sturge Southall (1835–1862), grocer, and Elizabeth Maria Baker (1833–1922). His parents, both Quakers, had married the previous year. When his father died in September 1862, his mother took him to ...

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Weizmann, Chaim (1874–1952), Zionist leader and president of Israel, was born at Motol, near Pinsk, Belorussia, in the Jewish pale of settlement, the third child of Ozer Weizmann (1850?–1911) and his wife, Rachel-Leah Tchemerinsky (1852?–1939). He was one of fifteen children, twelve of whom (seven boys and five girls) survived to adulthood. Although the exact date of his birth is not known, it most probably took place on 27 November 1874. ...

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Williams, John Henry (bap. 1747, d. 1829), Church of England clergyman and peace advocate, was baptized in Gloucester Cathedral on 10 April 1747, the son of John Williams and his wife, Mary (d. 1800); his armigerous family was descended from the distinguished judge ...