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Balfour, John Hutton (1808–1884), botanist, was born in Edinburgh on 15 September 1808, the eldest son of Andrew Balfour, an army surgeon who later settled in that city as a printer and publisher, and Magdalene, daughter of the Revd George Goldie, an Edinburgh...

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Bentham, George (1800–1884), botanist, was born in Stoke, near Plymouth, on 22 September 1800, the third of five children of Samuel Bentham (1757–1831) and Maria Sophia Fordyce (1765–1858). His parents were both active in intellectual circles. Samuel Bentham, a naval engineer and inventor, travelled widely on government service in ...

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Borrer, William (1781–1862), botanist, was born at Henfield, Sussex, on 13 June 1781, the eldest of the three sons of William Borrer of Hurstpierpoint, landowner and sometime high sheriff of Sussex, and his wife, Mary, daughter and coheir of Nathaniel Lindfield of Dean House...

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Britten, James (1846–1924), botanist and Roman Catholic propagandist, was born on 3 May 1846 at 18 Shawfield Street, Chelsea, London, the son of James Alexander Britten, bookseller, and his wife, Mary Ann (née Shepard). His father was a prominent active member of the local community, and ...

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Clarke, Charles Baron (1832–1906), botanist, was born on 17 June 1832 at Andover, Hampshire, the eldest son of Turner Poulter Clarke JP, and his wife, Elizabeth, daughter of James Parker and Elizabeth Ward. Botany ran in the family: his father's mother, Elizabeth Baron...

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Druce, George Claridge (1850–1932), botanist, was born at Potterspury, south Northamptonshire, on 23 May 1850, the illegitimate son of Jane Druce, who came of farming stock from Woughton on the Green, Buckinghamshire. Little is known of his early life: circumstances were evidently difficult for his mother and in 1855 she took a situation in the nearby village of ...

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Duncan, John (1794–1881), hand-loom weaver and botanist, was born on 19 December 1794 at Stonehaven, Kincardineshire, the illegitimate son of John Duncan, weaver and soldier, from Drumlithie, and Ann Caird (c.1773–c.1830), also of Drumlithie, who decided to support herself and her child by weaving stockings and harvesting at nearby ...

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Gates, Reginald Ruggles (1882–1962), botanist and geneticist, was born on 1 May 1882 near Middleton, Nova Scotia, the eldest son of Andreas Bohaker Gates and his wife, Charlotte Elizabeth Ruggles. The Gates family was descended from Stephen Gates of Higham, Essex, who emigrated to ...

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Goodenough, Samuel (1743–1827), bishop of Carlisle and botanist, was born at Kimpton, near Weyhill, Hampshire, on 29 April 1743, the second son of the Revd William Goodenough, rector of Kimpton and of Broughton Poges, Oxfordshire, and prebendary of Brecon Cathedral, and his wife, ...

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G. S. Boulger

revised by Yolanda Foote

Greville, Robert Kaye (1794–1866), botanist, was born on 13 December 1794 at Bishop Auckland, co. Durham, the son of Robert Greville (1760–1830?), rector of Edlaston and Wyaston, Derbyshire, and his wife, Dorothy Chaloner (bap. 25 May 1766). His father was also BCL of ...

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Grew, Nehemiah (bap. 1641, d. 1712), botanist and physician, was the son of Obadiah Grew (bap. 1607, d. 1689) and his wife, Ellen or Helen, née Vicars (d. 1687). By her first marriage Ellen Grew had two sons, Henry Sampson, ejected minister and historian of dissent, and ...

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Henslow, John Stevens (1796–1861), botanist and Church of England clergyman, was born on 6 February 1796 at Rochester, Kent. He was the eldest of eleven children; his father was John Prentis Henslow, a solicitor, and his mother, Frances, was daughter of Thomas Stevens...

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Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton (1817–1911), botanist, was born at Halesworth, Suffolk, on 30 June 1817, the younger son of Sir William Jackson Hooker (1785–1865), regius professor of botany at Glasgow University, and his wife, Maria Sarah (1797–1872), daughter of Dawson Turner. Hooker attended his father's university botany lectures from the age of seven and formed an interest in plant distribution. Another early enthusiasm was travellers' tales—he recalled sitting on his grandfather's knee looking at the pictures in ...

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Hooker, Sir William Jackson (1785–1865), botanist, was born on 6 July 1785 at 71–7 Magdalen Street, Norwich, the second of the two children of Joseph Hooker (1754–1845) and his wife, Lydia, née Vincent (1759–1829). Joseph Hooker was distantly related to the Baring brothers and was a confidential clerk in their ...

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Elizabeth Baigent

Kalm, Pehr (1716–1779), botanist, was born in Ångermanland, Sweden, in March 1716, the son of Gabriel Kalm, minister of Korsnäs chapel, Närpes, Vasa county, in Österbotten, and Catharina Ross. His father died before Kalm was born, but with the help of relatives Kalm...

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Linnaeus, Carl [later Carl von Linné] (1707–1778), naturalist and taxonomist, was born on 23 May 1707 ns (13 May os) in a turf-roofed homestead at Råsult, near Stenbrohult, in the province of Småland in southern Sweden, the eldest of five children of the pastor, ...

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Lyall, Robert (1789–1831), botanist and traveller, was born in Abbey parish, Paisley, on 26 November 1789, the son of William and Janet (née Tassie or Tassin) Lyall. Probably educated at Paisley grammar school, he served an apprenticeship before matriculating in medicine at ...

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Martyn, John (1699–1768), botanist, was born on 12 September 1699 in Queen Street in the City of London, the son of Thomas Martyn (d. 1743), a merchant trading with Hamburg, and Katherine Weedon, who died the year after her son's birth. He was sent to a private school in the ...

Article

G. S. Boulger

revised by Arthur Sherbo

Martyn, Thomas (1735–1825), botanist, was born at Cambridge on 23 September 1735, the eldest surviving child of three sons and five daughters born to John Martyn (1699–1768), professor of botany at the University of Cambridge, and his first wife, Eulalia (1703–1749), daughter of ...

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Morison, Robert (1620–1683), botanist, was born at Aberdeen, the son of John Morison and his wife, Anna Gray. The family was native to Aberdeen, and Morison himself entered Marischal College there in 1635. He graduated as MA in 1638 and stayed on to teach in the university. As a student he cultivated his abilities in mathematics and learned Hebrew, at the insistence of his parents, who intended him for the ministry, but his principal interest was already in botany, particularly the flowers of his own country. His career was interrupted by the civil war, in which he fought on the royalist side. He was wounded in the head at the battle of the ...