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Anning, Mary (1799–1847), fossil collector and dealer, was born on 21 May 1799 in a seaside house in Lyme Regis, Dorset. She and her brother Joseph (1796–1849) were the only surviving children of Richard Anning (c.1766–1810), cabinet-maker and carpenter, and his wife, ...

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Mary Anning (1799–1847) by unknown artist, before 1842 © The Natural History Museum, London

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Brigitte Alice Askonas (1923–2013) by unknown photographer, 1970s © reserved; National Institute of Medical Research

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Askonas, Brigitte Alice [Ita] (1923–2013), immunologist and biochemist, was born on 1 April 1923 in Vienna, the second child and only daughter of Czech parents who were Jewish converts to Catholicism, Carl Frederick (later Charles Frederick) Askonas (1893–1946) and his wife, Rose, née...

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Atkinson [married name Calvert], (Caroline) Louisa Waring (1834–1872), writer and naturalist, was born on 25 February 1834 at Oldbury, Sutton Forest, near Berrima, on the southern highlands of New South Wales, the third daughter and fourth child of Charlotte, née Waring (1796–1867)...

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Auerbach, Charlotte [Lotte] (1899–1994), geneticist, was born on 14 May 1899 at Krefeld, Germany, the only child of Friedrich (Fritz) Auerbach (1870–1925), public health chemist in Berlin, and his wife, Selma, née Sachs (d. 1955), daughter of a general practitioner from Jauer...

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Barber [née Bowker], Mary Elizabeth (1818–1899), poet and natural historian, was born at Manor Farm, South Newton, Wiltshire, on 5 January 1818, the ninth child and first daughter of Miles Bowker (1758–1839), woollen manufacturer and sheep farmer of Gateshead, and Anna Maria (...

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Bate, Dorothea Minola Alice (1878–1951), palaeontologist, was born on 8 November 1878 at Napier House, Spilman Street, Carmarthen, the younger of two daughters and second child in the family of three of Henry Reginald Bate (d. 1921), a police superintendent and honorary ...

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Beddington, Rosa Susan Penelope (1956–2001), developmental biologist, was born on 23 March 1956 at King's College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London, the second daughter of (Julian) Roy Beddington, artist and writer, of Esseborne Manor, Hurstbourne Tarrant, Andover, Hampshire, and his wife, Anna Dorothy, née...

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Bell [married name Sawyer], Florence Ogilvy (1913–2000), biophysicist and molecular biologist, was born at 47 Hanover Road, Brondesbury Park, London, on 1 May 1913, the daughter of Thomas Bell (1871–1952), a photographer for the Illustrated London News and advertising manager at ...

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Etheldred Benett (1775–1845) by unknown artist, 1837 Norwich Castle Museum & Art Gallery

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Benett, Etheldred (1775–1845), fossil collector and geologist, was born on 22 July 1775 at Pyt House, Tisbury, Wiltshire, the eldest daughter of Thomas Benett (c.1729–1797) and Catherine Darell (d. 1780). Her eldest surviving brother, John (1773–1852), was a deputy lieutenant and magistrate for ...

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Margaret Jane Benson (1859–1936) by Maull & Fox, c. 1911 by permission of the Linnean Society of London

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Benson, Margaret Jane (1859–1936), botanist and palaeontologist, was born on 20 October 1859 in London, the sixth of the nine children of William Benson, architect and civil engineer, and his wife, Edmunda, daughter of landscape painter James Bourne. The family moved to Norton House, Hertford...

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Margaret Cavendish Bentinck [Lady Margaret Cavendish Harley], duchess of Portland (1715–1785) by Joseph Brown, pubd 1861 (after Christian Friedrich Zincke, 1738) © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Bentinck, Margaret Cavendish [née Lady Margaret Cavendish Harley], duchess of Portland (1715–1785), collector of art and natural history specimens and patron of arts and sciences, was born on 11 February 1715 in London, the only surviving child of Edward Harley, later second earl of Oxford...

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Berkeley [formerly Bergtheil; née Dunington], Edith (1875–1963), marine biologist, was born on 1 September 1875 in Tulbagh, Cape of Good Hope, the older daughter of Alfred Dunington, civil engineer, and his wife, Martha Treglohan (c.1837–c.1927). Having spent her early childhood abroad, and having had private tutors in the ...

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Brightwen [née Elder], Eliza (1830–1906), naturalist and writer, was born on 30 October 1830 at Banff, Scotland, the fourth child of George and Margaret Elder. Following the death of her mother in 1837 she was adopted by her uncle, Alexander Elder, one of the founders of the publishing house of ...

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Casselton [née Smith], Lorna Ann (1938–2014), fungal geneticist, was born on 18 July 1938 at Southend Municipal Hospital, Rochford, Essex, the daughter of William Charles Henry Smith and his wife Cecille, née Bowman. At the time of her birth her parents lived at ...

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See Chain, Sir Ernst Boris