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Armstrong, Eliza (b. 1872), domestic servant and victim of abduction, was born at 9 Charles Street, Lisson Grove, in the Marylebone district of London on 18 April 1872 to Charles Armstrong, a chimney sweep, and Elizabeth, née Chivers, who were married in March 1874. The family later moved to ...

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Bebb [married name Thomson], Gwyneth Marjory (1889–1921), campaigner for women's admission to the legal profession, was born at Brasenose House, High Street, Oxford, on 27 October 1889, the second daughter and third of the seven children of Llewellyn John Montfort Bebb DD (1862–1915)...

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Gwyneth Marjory Bebb (1889–1921) by unknown photographer, 1920 by kind permission of Anne Tickell and Martin Tomlins

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Dame Geraldine Southall Cadbury (1865–1941) by Thomas Bowman Garvie, 1912 © Birmingham Museums Trust

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Cadbury, Dame Geraldine Southall (1865–1941), social and penal reformer, was born Geraldine Southall at 5 Highfield Road, Edgbaston, on 29 June 1865, the daughter of Alfred Southall (1838–1931), chemist, and his wife, Anna Strangman, née Grubb (1841–1912). She inherited a propensity for social activism from her Quaker parents; her father was a temperance worker who taught a working men's adult school class, while her Irish mother was a supporter of women's suffrage. She was educated at ...

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Frankenburg [née Barnett], Charis Ursula (1892–1985), birth control campaigner and justice of the peace, was born on 9 February 1892 at Borough Road Training College, Isleworth, where her father, Percy Arthur Barnett (1858–1941) was the college principal. Her father, who later became a schools inspector, was of Jewish ancestry but had converted to Christianity, while her mother, ...

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Elizabeth Fry (1780–1845) by George Richmond, 1844 Norwich Castle Museum & Art Gallery / private collection

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Fry [née Gurney], Elizabeth (1780–1845), penal reformer and philanthropist, was born on 21 May 1780 at Magdalen Street, Norwich, the fourth of twelve children, seven daughters and five sons, of John Gurney (1749–1809), a merchant and banker, and Catherine Bell (1754–1792). Her parents were both descendants of old Quaker families, ...

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See Hill, Rosamond Davenport

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Jackson [née Hall], Emily Emma Maude (1845–1898), litigant for the rights of married women, was born on 10 February 1845 in Clitheroe, Lancashire, the daughter of Henry Hall, a solicitor. She was the youngest of a family of three sisters. Emily Hall...

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Helena Florence Normanton (1882–1957) by Elliott & Fry, 1945 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Normanton, Helena Florence (1882–1957), barrister and feminist campaigner, was born on 14 December 1882 in London, the eldest of two daughters of William Alexander Normanton (1853–1886), pianoforte manufacturer, and his wife, Jane Amelia (1850–1900), daughter of Thomas Williams Marshall and his wife, Harriet...

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Orme, Eliza (1848–1937), social activist and lawyer, was born on 25 December 1848 at 16 Regent Villas, Avenue Road, London, the seventh of eight children of Charles Orme (c.1807–1893), distiller, of Southwark, and his wife, Eliza (1816–1892), eldest daughter of the ...

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Cornelia Sorabji (1866–1954) by Lafayette, 1930 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Sorabji, Cornelia (1866–1954), barrister and social reformer, was born at Nasik in the Bombay Presidency, India, on 15 November 1866, the fifth daughter of the Revd Sorabji Karsedji, a Parsi Christian convert, and his wife, Franscina Ford, who had been brought up by an English couple. The ...

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Tree [née Cavendish], Lady Anne Evelyn Beatrice (1927–2010), philanthropist and prison visitor, was born on 6 November 1927 at 2 Upper Belgrave Street, London, the third daughter of Edward William Spencer Cavendish, marquess of Hartington and later tenth duke of Devonshire (1895–1950)...