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Etheldred Benett (1775–1845) by unknown artist, 1837 Norwich Castle Museum & Art Gallery

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Benett, Etheldred (1775–1845), fossil collector and geologist, was born on 22 July 1775 at Pyt House, Tisbury, Wiltshire, the eldest daughter of Thomas Benett (c.1729–1797) and Catherine Darell (d. 1780). Her eldest surviving brother, John (1773–1852), was a deputy lieutenant and magistrate for ...

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Buckland [née Morland], Mary (1797–1857), geological artist and curator, was born on 20 November 1797 in St Helen's parish, Abingdon, Berkshire, the eldest daughter of Benjamin Morland (1768–1833), solicitor (and a member of the West Ilsley brewing family), and his wife, Harriet Baster (1777–1799)...

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Carne, Elizabeth Catherine Thomas (1817–1873), geologist and author, was born at Riviere House, Phillack, in Cornwall, on 16 December 1817, the fifth of six children of the industrialist Joseph Carne (1782–1858), and his wife, Mary (1777–1835), daughter of William Thomas of Haverfordwest. Her father, a Methodist, was a noted local geologist and ...

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Crosfield, Margaret Chorley (1859–1952), geologist, was born on 7 September 1859 at Wray Park, Reigate, Surrey, the daughter of Joseph Crosfield, tea merchant, and his wife, Sarah Swatridge, née Lowe; both were members of the Society of Friends. Crosfield attended the Mount School, York...

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Elles, Gertrude Lilian (1872–1960), geologist and palaeontologist, was born on 8 October 1872 in Wimbledon, Surrey, one of six children of Jamison Elles, an importer of Chinese goods, and his wife, Mary Chesney. Her father was Scottish and, when she was a child, family holidays were often spent in the Scottish highlands. She was educated at ...

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Gordon [née Ogilvie], Dame Maria Matilda (1864–1939), geologist and women's activist, was born on 30 April 1864 in Monymusk, Aberdeenshire, elder daughter among seven children of Revd Alexander Ogilvie (1830/31–1904), schoolmaster, and his wife, Maria Matilda Nicol. The family moved to Aberdeen...

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Hastings, Barbara Rawdon [née Barbara Yelverton], marchioness of Hastings and suo jure Baroness Grey of Ruthin (1810–1858), fossil collector and geological author, was born on 20 May 1810 at Brandon House in Warwickshire, the only child of Henry Edward Yelverton, Baron Grey of Ruthin...

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Murchison [née Hugonin], Charlotte, Lady Murchison (1788–1869), geologist, was born, according to the inscription on her tombstone, on 18 April 1788, probably in the family's home, Nursted House, near Petersfield, Hampshire, one of at least three children of General Francis Hugonin (...

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Catherine Alice Raisin (1855–1945) by unknown photographer [standing, in the botany library at Bedford College] Royal Holloway College; photograph National Portrait Gallery, London

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Raisin, Catherine Alice (1855–1945), geologist and educationist, was born at 13 Camden Terrace, Camden New Town, London, on 24 April 1855, the daughter of (Daniel) Francis Raisin, pannierman at the Inner Temple, and his wife, Sarah Catherine, née Woodgate. She was educated at ...

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Rookwood [married name Gage], Elizabeth (1684–1759), estate manager, Roman Catholic recusant and scholar, was born at Coldham Hall, Stanningfield, Suffolk, on 4 January 1684, the only surviving child of Thomas Rookwood 1658–1726, and his first wife, Tamworth Martin d. 1684; her mother died in childbirth giving birth to ...

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Shakespear [née Wood], Dame Ethel Mary Reader (1871–1946), public servant and geologist, was born on 17 July 1871 at Biddenham, near Bedford, the daughter of the Revd Henry Wood (c.1829–1912). After attending Bedford high school, she entered Newnham College, Cambridge...

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Dame Ethel Mary Reader Shakespear (1871–1946) by unknown photographer The Principal and Fellows, Newnham College, Cambridge

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Watson [married name Sutton], Janet Vida (1923–1985), geologist, was born in Hampstead, London, on 1 September 1923, the younger daughter (there were no sons) of David Meredith Seares Watson FRS (1886–1973), professor of zoology and comparative anatomy in the University of London...