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Atwood [née South], Mary Anne (1817–1910), interpreter of alchemy, was born at Dieppe in 1817, the daughter of Thomas South (c.1785–1855), gentleman, of Bury House, Gosport, Hampshire, and his wife, Elise, née Maurice. She received no formal education but became proficient in Latin and Greek and developed a 'rare and extraordinary knowledge of the classics' (...

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Mary Anne Atwood (1817–1910) by unknown photographer, c. 1890 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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See Boole [née Everest], Mary

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See Chapman, David Leonard

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Clarke [née Green], Patricia Hannah (1919–2010), microbial biochemist, was born on 29 July 1919 at 43 Mackintosh Road, The Common, Pontypridd, Glamorgan, the elder daughter of David Samuel Green (1891–1957), marine store dealer, and his wife, Daisy Lilian Amy, née Willoughby (1889–1970)...

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See Cornforth, Sir John Warcup

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Rosalind Elsie Franklin (1920–1958) by Elliott & Fry, 1946 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Franklin, Rosalind Elsie (1920–1958), crystallographer, was born at Chepstow Villas, Notting Hill, London, on 25 July 1920, the elder daughter and second of the family of five children of Ellis Arthur Franklin (1894–1964), merchant banker of London, and his wife, Muriel Frances Waley (1894–1976)...

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Marilyn Bailey Ogilvie

Freund, Ida (1863–1914), chemist, was born in Vienna, Austria on 15 April 1863, the daughter of Fedor Freund and his wife Sophia. She was of Jewish descent. Orphaned when she was very young, she was brought up by her maternal grandparents in Vienna...

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Ida Freund (1863–1914) by unknown photographer, 1912 [seated, with students in a laboratory at Newnham College, Cambridge] The Principal and Fellows, Newnham College, Cambridge

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Fulhame, Elizabeth [known as Mrs Fulhame] (fl. 1780–1794), chemist, was an original chemist but little else is known of her life. Her husband, Thomas Fulhame, had come from Ireland and enrolled in the chemistry class at Edinburgh University in 1779–80. He graduated MD in 1784 and, unusually, retained a presence in the chemistry class until 1790. He travelled or lived briefly in ...

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See Mills, William Hobson

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Hodgkin, Dorothy Mary Crowfoot (1910–1994), chemist and crystallographer, was born on 12 May 1910 in Guizeh, near Cairo, Egypt, the eldest of four daughters of John Winter Crowfoot (1873–1958) and his wife, Grace Mary (Molly) Hood (1877–1957). Her father was an inspector with the ...

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Dorothy Mary Crowfoot Hodgkin (1910–1994) by Maggi Hambling, 1985 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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See Ingold, Sir Christopher Kelk

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Leslie [married name Burr], May Sybil (1887–1937), chemist, was born on 14 August 1887 at Cloverfield, Woodlesford, Yorkshire, the daughter of Frederick Leslie, coalminer (and later bookseller), and his wife, Elizabeth Dickinson. She was educated at Leeds high school and on graduation in 1905 was awarded a ...

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Lonsdale [née Yardley], Dame Kathleen (1903–1971), crystallographer and pacifist, was born Kathleen Yardley in Newbridge, Ireland, on 28 January 1903, the youngest child of Harry Frederick Yardley (d. 1923), the local postmaster, and his wife, Jessie Cameron. In 1908 Kathleen's mother, who had been brought up in ...

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Megaw, Helen Dick (1907–2002), crystallographer, was born on 1 June 1907 at 44 Northumberland Road, Dublin, in the family of two sons and five daughters of Robert Dick Megaw (d. 1947), barrister, politician, and judge, and his wife, Annie, née McElderry. Her father had been called to the Irish bar in 1893 and took silk in 1921; from 1912 to 1914 he was professor of common law at the ...

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Murray, Dame (Alice) Rosemary (1913–2004), chemist and university administrator, was born on 28 July 1913 at South Leigh Cottage, South Leigh, Warblington, Hampshire, the eldest of six children (three daughters and three sons) of Lieutenant (later Vice-Admiral) Arthur John Layard Murray (1886–1959), naval officer, and his wife, ...

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See Robinson, Sir Robert