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Anning, Mary (1799–1847), fossil collector and dealer, was born on 21 May 1799 in a seaside house in Lyme Regis, Dorset. She and her brother Joseph (1796–1849) were the only surviving children of Richard Anning (c.1766–1810), cabinet-maker and carpenter, and his wife, ...

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Askonas, Brigitte Alice [Ita] (1923–2013), immunologist and biochemist, was born on 1 April 1923 in Vienna, the second child and only daughter of Czech parents who were Jewish converts to Catholicism, Carl Frederick (later Charles Frederick) Askonas (1893–1946) and his wife, Rose, née...

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Atkins [née Children], Anna (1799–1871), botanist and photographic artist, was born on 16 March 1799 in Tonbridge, Kent, the only child of John George Children (1777–1852), scientist, and his wife, Hester Anne Holwell (d. 1800). Some aspects of her early life are suggested in her pseudo-anonymous biography of her father, but otherwise little is known. ...

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Atwood [née South], Mary Anne (1817–1910), interpreter of alchemy, was born at Dieppe in 1817, the daughter of Thomas South (c.1785–1855), gentleman, of Bury House, Gosport, Hampshire, and his wife, Elise, née Maurice. She received no formal education but became proficient in Latin and Greek and developed a '...

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Belville, (Elizabeth) Ruth Naomi (1854–1943), horologist and merchant, was born on 5 March 1854 at 9 Hyde Vale Cottages, Greenwich, Kent, the only child of Belville, John Henry (1795?–1856), horologist and assistant astronomer at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, and his third wife, ...

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Benett, Etheldred (1775–1845), fossil collector and geologist, was born on 22 July 1775 at Pyt House, Tisbury, Wiltshire, the eldest daughter of Thomas Benett (c.1729–1797) and Catherine Darell (d. 1780). Her eldest surviving brother, John (1773–1852), was a deputy lieutenant and magistrate for ...

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Benson, Margaret Jane (1859–1936), botanist and palaeontologist, was born on 20 October 1859 in London, the sixth of the nine children of William Benson, architect and civil engineer, and his wife, Edmunda, daughter of landscape painter James Bourne. The family moved to Norton House, Hertford...

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Bentinck, Margaret Cavendish [née Lady Margaret Cavendish Harley], duchess of Portland (1715–1785), collector of art and natural history specimens and patron of arts and sciences, was born on 11 February 1715 in London, the only surviving child of Edward Harley, later second earl of Oxford...

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Bishop, Ann (1899–1990), parasitologist, was born on 19 December 1899 at 43 Derby Street, Hulme, Manchester, the first of the two children of James Kimberley Bishop, cabinet-maker, and his wife, Eileen, daughter of George Ginger, builder, and his wife, Mary. Ann Bishop's grandfather ...

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Brown, Elizabeth (1830–1899), astronomer and meteorologist, was born on 6 August 1830 at Further Barton, Hampton Road, Cirencester, Gloucestershire, the elder of the two daughters of Thomas Crowther Brown (1792–1883), a wine merchant and amateur meteorologist, and his wife, Jemimah. The family was comfortably off and ...

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Bryan, Margaret (fl. 1795–1816), educator and writer on natural philosophy, was a noted early example of a woman teaching natural science to other women. Little is known about her life; such information as is available comes from her own writings. She was married to a ...

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Byron, (Augusta) Ada [married name (Augusta) Ada King, countess of Lovelace] (1815–1852), mathematician and computer pioneer, was born on 10 December 1815 at 13 Piccadilly Terrace, London, the only child of George Gordon Noel Byron, sixth Baron Byron (1788–1824), poet, and his wife, ...

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Cartwright, Dame Mary Lucy (1900–1998), mathematician, was born on 17 December 1900 at Church Cottage, Aynho, Northamptonshire, third child of William Digby Cartwright and his wife, Lucy Harriette Maud, née Bury. Her father acted as curate of Aynho for his incapacitated uncle, becoming rector in 1906. Her two older brothers were killed in the First World War leaving a younger sister, ...

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H. P. Hollis

revised by M. T. Brück

Clerke, Agnes Mary (1842–1907), writer on astronomy, born at Skibbereen, co. Cork, on 10 February 1842, was the younger daughter of John William Clerke (1814–1890), and his wife, Catherine (1818–1897), daughter of Rickard Deasy of Clonakilty, co. Cork, and sister of Rickard Deasy...

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Cropper [née Trueman], Dame Hilary Mary (1941–2004), businesswoman, was born on 9 January 1941 at 6 Oldham Street, Bollington, near Macclesfield, Cheshire, the daughter of Arnold Trueman, a commercial clerk then serving as an aircraftsman second class in the RAF, and his wife, ...

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Drew [married name Baker], Kathleen Mary (1901–1957), phycologist, was born at Cleeve House, Windermere Road, Leigh, Lancashire, on 6 November 1901, eldest daughter of Walter Drew (1873–1949), who was then a commercial traveller for an agricultural implement manufacturer (he later became chairman of a farm machinery company), and his wife, ...

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Fawcett, Philippa Garrett (1868–1948), mathematician and civil servant, was born in London on 4 April 1868, the only daughter of Henry Fawcett (1833–1884), Liberal politician and professor of political economy at Cambridge, and his wife, Millicent Garrett Fawcett (1847–1929), leader of the women's suffragist movement. ...

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Fell, Dame Honor Bridget (1900–1986), cell biologist, was born on 22 May 1900 at Fowthorpe, near Filey in Yorkshire, the youngest in the family of seven daughters and two sons of Colonel William Edwin Fell, army officer, landowner, and farmer, and his wife, ...

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Frankland [née Brown], Juliet Camilla (1929–2013), mycologist, was born on 30 January 1929 at High Barn Eaves, Effingham, Dorking, Surrey, the younger daughter of Walter Henry Brown (1893/4–1956), a civil servant in the Ministry of Works, and his wife, Gerda Lois, née...

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Franklin, Rosalind Elsie (1920–1958), crystallographer, was born at Chepstow Villas, Notting Hill, London, on 25 July 1920, the elder daughter and second of the family of five children of Ellis Arthur Franklin (1894–1964), merchant banker of London, and his wife, Muriel Frances Waley (1894–1976)...