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Albery, Nicholas Bronson (1948–2001), social activist and charity founder, was born on 28 July 1948 at Bricket House, Bricket Road, St Albans, Hertfordshire, the second of three children of Sir Donald Arthur Rolleston Albery (1914–1988), theatre owner and theatrical manager, and his second wife, ...

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Alison, William Pulteney (1790–1859), physician and social reformer, born at Boroughmuirhead near Edinburgh on 12 November 1790, was the son of Archibald Alison (1757–1839), who was in charge of the Episcopal congregation in Edinburgh as well as being a noted author, and his wife, ...

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Ashbee, Charles Robert (1863–1942), architect, designer, and social reformer, was born on 17 May 1863 at Spring Grove, Heston, Isleworth, Middlesex, the first of the four children of Henry Spencer Ashbee (1834–1900), merchant and book collector, and his wife, Elizabeth Josephine Jenny (1841–1919)...

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Ashby, Joseph (1859–1919), farmer and social reformer, was born in Tysoe in Warwickshire on 13 June 1859, the son of an unmarried servant, Elizabeth Ashby. His father was the husband of Elizabeth's mistress, yet, common as such births were, Ashby's was in some ways different. His father provided for him but his mother, a fiercely independent woman, refused to use the money. More importantly his mother's branch of the ...

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Bamber [née Balmuth], Helen Rae (1925–2014), human rights advocate and psychotherapist, was born at Westminster Hospital, London, on 1 May 1925, the only child of Louis Balmuth (1887–1961), accountant, and his wife Marie, née Bader (1895–1969), a singer. At the time of her birth registration her parents, both of Polish-Jewish descent, lived at ...

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Barnett [née Rowland], Dame Henrietta Octavia Weston (1851–1936), social reformer, was born in Clapham, Surrey, on 4 May 1851, the daughter of Alexander William Rowland (d. 1869), whose family fortune derived from Rowland's Macassar Oil Company, and Henrietta Monica Margaretta Ditges (...

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Benenson, Peter James Henry (1921–2005), barrister and human rights campaigner, was born on 31 July 1921 at 6 Albert Court, Knightsbridge, London, the only child of Lieutenant-Colonel Harold Josiah Solomon (1885–1930), army officer, and his wife, Flora (1895–1984), daughter of the Jewish Russian banker ...

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Beveridge, William Henry, Baron Beveridge (1879–1963), social reformer and economist, was born at Rangpur in Bengal on 5 March 1879.

Beveridge was the second child and elder son of ...

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Blackley, William Lewery (1830–1902), Church of England clergyman and social reformer, was born at Dundalk, Ireland, on 30 December 1830. He was the second son of Travers Robert Blackley of Dublin and Bohogh, co. Roscommon, and Eliza, daughter of Colonel Lewery, who was taken prisoner by the French at ...

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Bosanquet [née Dendy], Helen (1860–1925), social theorist and social reformer, was born in Manchester on 10 February 1860. She was the youngest daughter and the fifth child in the family of five sons and four daughters of the Revd John Dendy, who had been a nonconformist minister, and then became a businessman in ...

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J. E. G. de Montmorency

revised by Tim Macquiban

Bunting, Sir Percy William (1836–1911), social reformer and journal editor, born on 1 February 1836 at Ratcliffe, near Manchester, was only son of Thomas Percival Bunting and his wife, Eliza Bealey. Bunting's father, third son of Jabez Bunting, was a solicitor in Manchester...

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Butler [née Grey], Josephine Elizabeth (1828–1906), social reformer and women's activist, born on 13 April 1828 at Milfield Hill, Glendale, Northumberland, was the fourth daughter and seventh child of John Grey (1785–1868) and Hannah Eliza, née Annett (d. 1860). She was unusual among nineteenth-century feminists in having family ties to the whig aristocracy: ...

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Cadbury, George (1839–1922), confectionery manufacturer and social reformer, was born at Edgbaston, Birmingham, on 19 September 1839, the third son and fourth child of John Cadbury (1801–1889), cocoa and chocolate manufacturer, and his wife, Candia (1805–1855), daughter of George Barrow, merchant and shipowner, of ...

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Cadbury, Dame Geraldine Southall (1865–1941), social and penal reformer, was born Geraldine Southall at 5 Highfield Road, Edgbaston, on 29 June 1865, the daughter of Alfred Southall (1838–1931), chemist, and his wife, Anna Strangman, née Grubb (1841–1912). She inherited a propensity for social activism from her Quaker parents; her father was a temperance worker who taught a working men's adult school class, while her Irish mother was a supporter of women's suffrage. She was educated at ...

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Chadwick, Sir Edwin (1800–1890), social reformer and civil servant, was born at Longsight, near Manchester, on 24 January 1800. Surprisingly little is known of his early life, and of his mother nothing, except that she died in the infancy of her only son. His father, ...

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Chalmers, Thomas (1780–1847), Church of Scotland minister and social reformer, was born on 17 March 1780 in Anstruther, Fife, the sixth of fourteen children of John Chalmers (1740–1818), merchant and provost of Anstruther, and Elizabeth (1750–1827), daughter of George Hall, wine merchant of ...

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Conway, Moncure Daniel (1832–1907), social reformer and ethical preacher, was born on 17 March 1832 at Middleton plantation, Stafford county, Virginia, the second of the six children of Walker Peyton Conway (1805–1884), a slave-owning planter, attorney, and judge, and his wife, Margaret (1807–1891)...

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Gaikwar [Gaekwar], Sayaji Rao [Sayaji Rao], maharaja of Baroda (1863–1939), social reformer, was born on 11 March 1863 at Kavlana in Nasik district of Bombay presidency, and named Gopal Rao, the second son of Kashi Rao, a village headman, who belonged to the ...

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Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand [known as Mahatma Gandhi] (1869–1948), political leader and religious and social reformer, was born in Porbandar, Kathiawar, western India, on 2 October 1869, to Karamchand Uttamchand Gandhi and his fourth wife, Putlibai: he was the youngest of the one daughter and three sons of the marriage....

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Gower, Millicent Fanny Sutherland-Leveson- [née Millicent Fanny St Clair-Erskine], duchess of Sutherland (1867–1955), society hostess and social reformer, was born on 20 October 1867 at Dysart House, Fife, the eldest child of Robert St Clair-Erskine, fourth earl of Rosslyn (1833–1900), and his wife, ...