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Adams, William Grylls (1836–1915), scientist and university teacher, was born on 10 February 1836 at Lidcot, Laneast, Cornwall, the youngest son of the four sons and three daughters of Thomas Adams (1788–1859), small estate owner and farmer, and his wife, Tabitha Knill Grylls (1796–1866)...

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William Allen (1770–1843) by Henry Perronet Briggs, exh. RA 1844 Museum of the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain

Article

Leslie Stephen

revised by G. F. Bartle

Allen, William (1770–1843), philanthropist and scientist, was born on 29 August 1770 at Stewart Street, the Old Artillery Ground, Spitalfields, London, the eldest of the six sons of Job Allen (1734–1800) and his wife, Margaret Stafford (d. 1830). His father, a silk manufacturer, was a member of the ...

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Bath, Adelard of (b. in or before 1080?, d. in or after 1150), scientist and translator, was a pioneer in introducing Arabic mathematics into England.

Although absolute confidence cannot be placed in the autobiographical details included within the fictitious context of his literary works, ...

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Blagden, Sir Charles (bap. 1748, d. 1820), physician and secretary of the Royal Society, was born at Wotton under Edge in Gloucestershire, where he was baptized on 19 April 1748, a younger son of John Blagden (1715–1750) and Elizabeth Phelps (1716–1784). His family was involved in various ways in the local textile industry. His early education is obscure but he studied medicine at the ...

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Bruce, William Speirs (1867–1921), polar scientist and explorer, was born at 43 Kensington Gardens Square, Paddington, London, on 1 August 1867. He was the fourth child of a family of eight children and had one younger brother and six sisters. His father, Samuel Noble Bruce MRCS...

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William Speirs Bruce (1867–1921) by unknown photographer reproduced by permission of the Scott Polar Research Institute

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Buist, George (1804–1860), newspaper editor and scientist, was born at Tannadice, Forfarshire, on 17 November 1804, the second of the nine children of the Revd John Buist (1752/3–1845) and his wife, Margaret Jafferson. After being taught at home by his father until 1817 he was educated at ...

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Bulkeley, Sir Richard, second baronet (1660–1710), scientist and author, was born on 17 August 1660 in Dublin, the first son of Sir Richard Bulkeley, first baronet (1634–1685), and his first wife, Catherine, née Bysse (d. 1662). He entered Trinity College, Dublin, in September 1676, graduating BA in 1680, and MA in 1682. ...

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Campbell, George Douglas, eighth duke of Argyll in the peerage of Scotland, and first duke of Argyll in the peerage of the United Kingdom (1823–1900), politician and scientist, was the second son of John Douglas Edward Henry Campbell (1777–1847) and his second wife, ...

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George Douglas Campbell, eighth duke of Argyll in the peerage of Scotland, and first duke of Argyll in the peerage of the United Kingdom (1823–1900) by George Frederic Watts, c. 1860 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Chipchase, John (1747–1816), Quaker diarist, schoolmaster, and amateur scientist, was born in Stockton-upon-Tees on 5 October 1747, the son of John Chipchase, shoemaker, of nearby Norton, and Mary, neé Johnson. He married Mary Hunt on 25 July 1776, and the couple had four children, ...

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Close, Maxwell Henry (1822–1903), geologist and man of science, born on 23 October 1822 at 7 Merrion Square East, Dublin, the eldest son among the eight sons and three daughters of Henry Samuel Close, later of Newtown Park House, co. Dublin, and his wife, ...

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Dinwiddie, James (1746–1815), scientist, was born on 8 December 1746 on a farm in Kirkland, Dumfriesshire, the youngest child of three sons and two daughters of John Dinwoody (d. 1746), farmer, and his wife, Catharine Riddick. James's father died six months before he was born and left his family in very difficult circumstances. ...

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John Ellicott (1702/33–1772) by Robert Dunkarton (after Nathaniel Dance, c. 1769) © Copyright The British Museum

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Ellicott, John (1702/3–1772), watchmaker and scientist, was born in London, the son of John Ellicott (1674–1733), clockmaker, and his wife, Mary. John Ellicott senior, whose parents, Sampson and Elizabeth Ellicott, came from Bodmin, Cornwall, was baptized at St Anthonin's, Budge Row, on 2 September 1674. He was apprenticed in the ...

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Michael Faraday (1791–1867) by Thomas Phillips, 1841–2 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Faraday, Michael (1791–1867), natural philosopher, scientific adviser, and Sandemanian, was born on 22 September 1791 in Newington Butts, Surrey, the third of four children of James Faraday (1761–1810), blacksmith, and his wife, Margaret (1764–1838), daughter of Michael Hastwell, farmer of Mallestang near Kirkby Stephen, Westmorland...

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Faulds, Henry (1843–1930), general practitioner and developer of fingerprinting, was born on 1 June 1843 at Beith, Ayrshire, the son of William Pollock Faulds, an impoverished grocer, and his wife, Anne Cameron. Both sides of his family were of Scottish descent. After school at ...

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Henry Faulds (1843–1930) by unknown photographer, pubd 1923 © National Portrait Gallery, London