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Adams, John (1735–1826), president of the United States of America, was born on 19 October 1735, in the north parish (in 1792 named Quincy) of Braintree, Suffolk county, Massachusetts, the eldest child of ‘Deacon’ John Adams (1692–1761), a local farmer, shoemaker, and office-holder, and his wife, ...

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Ivor Brown

revised by Marc Brodie

Agate, James Evershed (1877–1947), drama critic, was born at Pendleton, Lancashire, on 9 September 1877, the eldest of the five sons and one daughter of Charles James Agate (1832–1909), cotton manufacturer's agent, and his wife, Eulalie Julia Young, daughter of a widowed piano teacher. Although generally regarded during his lifetime as the writer from ...

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Aikin, Arthur (1773–1854), natural scientist and author, was born on 19 May 1773 at Warrington, Lancashire, the eldest son of John Aikin (1747–1822) and his wife, Martha (c.1746–1830), daughter of Arthur Jennings of Cheapside, London. His brothers were Charles Rochemont Aikin...

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Aikin, John (1747–1822), physician and writer, was born on 15 January 1747 at Kibworth Harcourt, Leicestershire, the younger child and only son of John Aikin (1713–1780), theologian, and his wife, Jane Jennings (1714–1785). He had an elder sister, who, under her married name of ...

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Barbara Brandon Schnorrenberg

Aikin, Lucy (1781–1864), historian, the fourth child and only daughter of John Aikin MD (1747–1822), and his wife, Martha Jennings (d. 1830), was born in Warrington on 6 November 1781. Her three brothers were Arthur Aikin, Charles Rochemont Aikin, and Edmund Aikin...

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Ainger, Alfred [pseud. Doubleday] (1837–1904), writer and Church of England clergyman, was born at 10 Doughty Street, London, on 9 February 1837, the youngest of the four children of Alfred Ainger (1798–1859) and his first wife, Marianne Jagger (1799–1839...

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Ainsworth, William Harrison (1805–1882), novelist, was born on 4 February 1805 at 21 King Street, Manchester, the elder of two sons of Thomas Ainsworth (1778–1824), a solicitor, and his wife, Ann (1778–1842), daughter of the Revd Ralph Harrison (1748–1810), a nonconformist minister and tutor of languages and literature at the ...

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Allingham [née Paterson], Helen Mary Elizabeth (1848–1926), watercolour painter, was born on 26 September 1848 at Swadlincote, Derbyshire, the eldest of the seven children (three boys and four girls) of Alexander Henry Paterson (1825–1862), medical practitioner and surgeon, and his wife, Mary Chance Herford (1824–1894)...

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Ashton, Margaret (1856–1937), local politician and philanthropist, was born on 19 January 1856 at Ashfield, Wilmslow Road, in Withington, Manchester, the third of the six daughters and three sons of Thomas Ashton (1818–1898), a wealthy cotton manufacturer, and his wife, Elizabeth (1831–1914), daughter of ...

Article

Alexander Gordon

revised by R. K. Webb

Bache, Samuel (1804–1876), Unitarian minister, was born on 24 December 1804 at Bridgnorth, Shropshire, to Joshua Tilt Bache, a grocer (d. 1837), and his wife, Margaret Silvester, of Newport, Shropshire. After his mother's death in 1808 he was raised by his father's sister, ...

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Baily, Francis (1774–1844), stockbroker and astronomer, was born at Newbury, Berkshire, on 28 April 1774, the third son of Richard Baily (1744–1814), a banker, and his wife, Sarah Head (1745–1823). At the age of fourteen, following his education at the old grammar school in ...

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Balint, Michael Maurice [formerly Mihaly Bergsmann] (1896–1970), psychoanalyst, was born on 3 December 1896 in Baross Street, Jozsefvaros, a residential section of Budapest, Hungary. He was the first of the two children of Ignac Bergsmann, a general medical practitioner. Both his parents were descendants of German Jewish families who had been fully assimilated Hungarians for only two or three generations. He later changed his name to ...

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Barker, Joseph (1806–1875), Methodist minister and politico-religious controversialist, was born on 11 May 1806 at Bramley, near Leeds. His ancestors, originally of Keighley, had been settled in this area for several generations as farmers and manufacturers. The identity of his parents has not been discovered, though it is known that his father was employed in woollen manufacture and served for some time in the militia, and that ...

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Belsham, Thomas (1750–1829), Unitarian minister, was born in Bedford on 15 April 1750, the eldest son (of four) and the eldest child (of eight) of the Revd James Belsham (d. 1770) and his wife, Ann(e) Woodward (d. 1780), eldest child of ...

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Biggs, Caroline Ashurst (1840–1889), novelist and campaigner for women's suffrage, was born in St Margaret's, Leicester, on 23 August 1840, the second daughter of Matilda Ashurst Biggs (1816/17–1866) and Joseph Biggs (1809–1895) [see under Biggs, John (1801-1871)], hosiery manufacturer, of Leicester...

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Bodichon, Barbara Leigh Smith (1827–1891), artist and women's activist, was born on 8 April 1827 in Whatlington, near Robertsbridge, Sussex, the eldest of the five children of the radical MP Benjamin Smith (1783–1860) [see under Smith, William (1756-1835)] and Anne Longden (1801–1834)...

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Booth, Charles (1840–1916), shipowner and social investigator, was born on 30 March 1840 at 27 Bedford North Street, Liverpool. He was the third son of Charles Booth (1799–1860), a prosperous corn merchant, and his first wife, Emily Fletcher (1803–1853). Both his parents were Unitarians, and had wide connections among the commercial, dissenting, and philanthropic ‘aristocracy’ of ...

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Boult, Sir Adrian Cedric (1889–1983), conductor, was born on 8 April 1889 at 4 Abbots Hayes, Liverpool Road, Chester, the only son and second child of Cedric Randal Boult (1853–1950), an oil merchant, and his wife, Katherine Florence Barman (d. 1927). He showed exceptional early musical promise. He entered ...

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Bourne, Samuel (1834–1912), photographer, was born at Windy Arbour Farm, Mucklestone, near Market Drayton, Staffordshire, on 30 October 1834, the third son of Thomas Bourne (1804–1871), a farmer, and his wife, Harriet, née Dobson (1800–1861). He was educated privately by a clergyman at ...

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Bowring, Sir John (1792–1872), politician, diplomatist, and writer, was born on 17 October 1792 at Larkbeare (also known as Great Larkbeare), Holloway Street, Exeter, Devon, the eldest son and second of the nine children of Charles Bowring (1769–1856), a wool merchant, and his wife, ...