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Bronowski, Jacob (1908–1974), mathematician, poet, and humanist, was born on 18 January 1908 in Łódź, Poland, the first of the three children of Abram Bronowski, haberdasher, and his wife, Celia Flatto. During the First World War the family lived in Germany, and in 1920 they moved to ...

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Cahn, Robert Wolfgang (1924–2007), materials scientist, was born on 9 September 1924 in Fürth, Bavaria, the first of two children of Martin Cahn (1896–1963), accountant and merchant, and his wife, Else, née Heinemann (1896–1962). His family was Jewish, assimilated into the business community. His maternal grandfather, ...

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Chain, Sir Ernst Boris (1906–1979), biochemist, was born on 19 June 1906 in Berlin, the only son of the two children of Dr Michael Chain, a Russian-born industrial chemist, and his wife, Margarete Eisner, who was related to Kurt Eisner, the socialist prime minister of ...

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Erdélyi [formerly Diamand], Arthur (1908–1977), mathematician, was born on 2 October 1908 in Budapest, the eldest of the five children (three sons and two daughters) of Ignác József Ármin Diamand, a shoe merchant, and his wife, Frederike (Frieda) Roth. After his father's death his mother married ...

Article

Finniston, Sir (Harold) Montague [Monty] (1912–1991), metallurgist and businessman, was born at 26 Aikenhead Road, Govanhill, Glasgow, on 15 August 1912, the eldest child in the family of two sons and three daughters of Robert Finniston and his wife, Esther, née Diamond. Both parents were Russian-Jewish immigrants; the original family name was ...

Article

Gold, Thomas [Tommy] (1920–2004), astrophysicist, was born on 22 May 1920 in Vienna, Austria, the son of Max Gold, a wealthy industrialist and a director of Austria's largest mining company, and his wife, Josefine, née Martin, a former child actress. His early childhood was spent in a privileged environment, and it seemed natural that he would follow his father into business. However, the steep economic downturn in ...

Article

Gregory, Frederick Gugenheim [formerly Fritz Gugenheim] (1893–1961), plant physiologist, was born at 236 Tufnell Park Road, Upper Holloway, London, on 22 December 1893. Fritz was the fourth of the eight children of Carl Gugenheim, a manufacturing jeweller, and Laura Maison. His father was a Jewish expatriate from ...

Article

Heilbron, Sir Ian Morris [formerly Isidor Morris] (1886–1959), chemist, was born on 6 November 1886 in Glasgow, the younger son of David Heilbron, wine merchant, and his wife, Fanny Jessel. Originally named Isidor, he eventually adopted the name of Ian, by which he had been known for many years. He was educated at ...

Article

Koch, Ludwig Karl (1881–1974), broadcaster and sound recordist, was born on 13 November 1881 at Eschersheimer Landstrasse 20, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, the second of the three children of Karl Theodor Koch, businessman, and his wife, Auguste Hess. Ludwig Koch's parents, both of whom were Jews, were enthusiastic music-lovers who introduced him into ...

Article

Krebs, Sir Hans Adolf (1900–1981), biochemist, was born on 25 August 1900 at Hildesheim, Germany, the elder son and second of the three children of Dr Georg Krebs, an otolaryngologist, and his wife, Alma Davidson, the daughter of a banker. After serving in the army for two months in 1918 he undertook pre-clinical medical studies at the universities of ...

Article

Kronberger, Hans (1920–1970), physicist and nuclear reactor engineer, was born in Linz, Austria, on 28 July 1920, the younger child and only son of Norbert and Olga Kronberger. His parents were Jewish and his father had inherited the family leather merchant business. At the German invasion, ...

Article

Levi, Leone (1821–1888), jurist, political economist, and statistician, was born on 6 June 1821 in Ancona, later part of the kingdom of Italy. He came from a middle-class Jewish family. His father, Isaac, and his elder brother were both merchants. Leone received a practical, commercial education and began working for his brother at the age of fifteen. He travelled to ...

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Mahler, Kurt (1903–1988), mathematician, was born on 26 July 1903 in Krefeld in the Prussian Rhineland, with his twin sister, Hilde (d. 1934), the youngest of the eight children of Hermann Mahler (1855–1941) and his wife, Henriette, née Stern (1860–1942). Both parents were from the Jewish community; his father, a printer, owned a small business. The four oldest children died before ...

Article

K. R. Webb

revised by Anthony S. Travis

Meldola, Raphael (1849–1915), chemist, was born on 19 July 1849 in Islington, London, the only son of Samuel Meldola, printer, and grandson of Raphael Meldola, formerly chief rabbi to the London Sephardi community. He was educated at private schools in Kew and Maida Vale...

Article

Monash, Sir John (1865–1931), army officer and engineer, was born at Richhill Terrace in West Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, on 27 June 1865, eldest of the three children and only son of Louis Monash (1831–1894), a shopkeeper, and his wife, Bertha, née Manasse (1841–1885)...

Article

Rado, Richard (1906–1989), mathematician, was born on 28 April 1906 in Berlin, the second son of Leopold Rado from Budapest. He studied at the University of Berlin, and also spent some time in Göttingen. He took a DPh at Berlin with a thesis described as a '...

Article

Rotblat, Sir Joseph (1908–2005), scientist and peace activist, was born Jósef Rotblat on 4 November 1908 in Warsaw, the eldest of five surviving children (two others died in infancy) of Zygmunt, otherwise Zelman, Rotblat, the owner of a haulage company specializing in the paper trade, and his wife, ...

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Rothschild, Lionel Walter, second Baron Rothschild (1868–1937), zoologist, was born in London on 8 February 1868, the elder son of Nathaniel Mayer de Rothschild, first Baron Rothschild (1840–1915), and his wife, Emma Louisa (1844–1935), daughter of Mayer Carl von Rothschild, of Frankfurt am Main...

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Rothschild, (Nathaniel Mayer) Victor, third Baron Rothschild (1910–1990), zoologist and public servant, was born on 31 October 1910 in Palace Green, Kensington, the only son and second of the four children of (Nathaniel) Charles Rothschild (1877–1923), banker and naturalist, and his wife, Rozsika (1870–1940)...

Article

Salaman, Redcliffe Nathan (1874–1955), geneticist and Jewish activist, was born Nathan Redcliffe Salaman, at 100 Redcliffe Gardens, Kensington, London, on 12 September 1874, the ninth of the fifteen children of Myer Salaman (1835/6–1896), a wealthy ostrich feather merchant, and his wife, Sarah Soloman (1844–1931)...