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Leslie Stephen

revised by G. F. Bartle

Allen, William (1770–1843), philanthropist and scientist, was born on 29 August 1770 at Stewart Street, the Old Artillery Ground, Spitalfields, London, the eldest of the six sons of Job Allen (1734–1800) and his wife, Margaret Stafford (d. 1830). His father, a silk manufacturer, was a member of the ...

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Bose, Sir Jagadish Chandra [Jagadis Chunder] (1858–1937), physicist and biologist, was born in the district of Vikrampur, close to Dacca, Bengal, India, on 30 November 1858, the son of Bhagaban Chandra Bose, deputy magistrate of neighbouring Faridpur, and his wife, Bamasundari. Though a Hindu, his father was one of the early members of the Western-influenced Hindu reform movement known as Brahmoism, along with his more traditionally Hindu wife....

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Bowden, (Bertram) Vivian, Baron Bowden (1910–1989), scientist and educationist, was born on 18 January 1910 in Chesterfield, Derbyshire, the elder child and only son of Bertram Caleb Bowden, primary school headmaster in Chesterfield, and his wife, Sarah Elizabeth, daughter of John Thomas Moulton...

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Bruce, William Speirs (1867–1921), polar scientist and explorer, was born at 43 Kensington Gardens Square, Paddington, London, on 1 August 1867. He was the fourth child of a family of eight children and had one younger brother and six sisters. His father, Samuel Noble Bruce MRCS...

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Campbell, George Douglas, eighth duke of Argyll in the peerage of Scotland, and first duke of Argyll in the peerage of the United Kingdom (1823–1900), politician and scientist, was the second son of John Douglas Edward Henry Campbell (1777–1847) and his second wife, ...

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Ellicott, John (1702/3–1772), watchmaker and scientist, was born in London, the son of John Ellicott (1674–1733), clockmaker, and his wife, Mary. John Ellicott senior, whose parents, Sampson and Elizabeth Ellicott, came from Bodmin, Cornwall, was baptized at St Anthonin's, Budge Row, on 2 September 1674. He was apprenticed in the ...

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Faraday, Michael (1791–1867), natural philosopher, scientific adviser, and Sandemanian, was born on 22 September 1791 in Newington Butts, Surrey, the third of four children of James Faraday (1761–1810), blacksmith, and his wife, Margaret (1764–1838), daughter of Michael Hastwell, farmer of Mallestang near Kirkby Stephen, Westmorland...

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Faulds, Henry (1843–1930), general practitioner and developer of fingerprinting, was born on 1 June 1843 at Beith, Ayrshire, the son of William Pollock Faulds, an impoverished grocer, and his wife, Anne Cameron. Both sides of his family were of Scottish descent. After school at ...

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Fuchs, Sir Vivian Ernest (1908–1999), explorer and scientist, was born on 11 February 1908 at Recluse Lodge, Freshwater, Isle of Wight, the only child of Ernst Fuchs (1882–1957) and Violet Anne Watson (1874–1942). His father was German and his English mother was born in ...

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Giffard, John Anthony Hardinge [Tony], third earl of Halsbury (1908–2000), scientist and public servant, was born on 4 June 1908 at Ennismore Gardens, London. He was the only son and elder child of Hardinge Goulborn Giffard, second earl of Halsbury (1880–1943), barrister and recorder of ...

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Gowland, William (1842–1922), metallurgist and archaeologist, was born in South Durham Street, Sunderland, co. Durham, on 16 December 1842, the elder of two sons of George Thompson Gowland (1800/01–1847), shipowner and innkeeper, and his wife, Catherine, formerly Ovington, née Kelly (1805–1891). He was intended to enter medicine and spent two years preparing for the profession with a doctor in ...

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Grosseteste, Robert (c. 1170–1253), scientist, theologian, and bishop of Lincoln, combined a very humble origin with torrential energy, great ability, and a rarely paralleled breadth of intellectual interests. His career followed no ordinary pattern, and can be divided into five distinct periods.

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Hardy, Sir Alister Clavering (1896–1985), zoologist and investigator of religious experience, was born in Nottingham on 10 February 1896, the youngest of the three sons (there were no daughters) of Richard Hardy (d. 1895), architect, and his wife, Elizabeth Hannah Clavering. He attended ...

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Herschel, Sir William James, second baronet (1833–1917), developer of fingerprinting and judge, was born on 9 January 1833, probably in Slough, the eldest child of the three sons and nine daughters of Sir John Herschel, first baronet (1792–1871), astronomer and chemist, and his wife, ...

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Home, David Milne [formerly David Milne] (1805–1890), advocate and scientist, was born on 22 January 1805 at Inveresk, Musselburgh, near Edinburgh, the elder son of Admiral Sir David Milne (1763–1845) and his first wife, Grace Purves (1776?–1814). The naval officer Sir Alexander Milne, ...

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Kearton, (Christopher) Frank, Baron Kearton (1911–1992), scientist and industrialist, was born on 17 February 1911 at Congleton in Cheshire, the only child of Christopher John Kearton and his wife, Lilian, née Hancock. Shortly afterwards the family moved to Tunstall in the Potteries. His father, a bricklayer, was one of five brothers all of whom, at the insistence of their father, became skilled craftsmen. It is believed that the family came originally from ...

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Kropotkin, Peter [Pyotr Alekseievich] (1842–1921), anarchist and scientist, was born on 27 November 1842 os at 26 Shtatny pereulok in Moscow, the son of Prince Aleksey Petrovich Kropotkin (1805–1871), an army officer who came from an old aristocratic family, and Yekaterina Nikolayevna Sulima...

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Lichtenberg, Georg Christoph (1742–1799), natural scientist and author, was born on 1 July 1742 in Ober Ramstadt, near Darmstadt, Hesse-Darmstadt, the youngest of the seventeen children born to Johann Conrad Lichtenberg, a Lutheran priest, and his wife, Henriette Catherine, née Eckhardt, the daughter of a Lutheran priest. He was baptized on the day of his birth for fear he would die, and curvature of the spine left him a hunchback. After tuition in the natural sciences from his father and attendance at the elementary school at ...

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Lindemann, Frederick Alexander, Viscount Cherwell (1886–1957), scientist and politician, was born on 5 April 1886 at Baden-Baden, where his mother was taking the cure. He resented all his life the accident of his birthplace being in Germany. He was the second of three sons of ...

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McNaughton, Andrew George Latta (1887–1966), army officer, scientist, and public servant, was born at Moosomin, Saskatchewan, Canada, on 25 February 1887, the elder son of Robert Duncan McNaughton of Moosomin, a prosperous storekeeper of Scottish highland descent, and his wife, Christina Mary Ann...