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Adams, William Grylls (1836–1915), scientist and university teacher, was born on 10 February 1836 at Lidcot, Laneast, Cornwall, the youngest son of the four sons and three daughters of Thomas Adams (1788–1859), small estate owner and farmer, and his wife, Tabitha Knill Grylls (1796–1866)...

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Aitken, John (1839–1919), meteorologist and experimental scientist, was born on 18 September 1839 at Falkirk, Stirlingshire, the fourth son of Henry Aitken of Darroch, the head of a well-known legal firm, and his wife, Margaret Russell. He was educated at Falkirk grammar school...

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William Allen (1770–1843) by Henry Perronet Briggs, exh. RA 1844 Museum of the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain

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Leslie Stephen

revised by G. F. Bartle

Allen, William (1770–1843), philanthropist and scientist, was born on 29 August 1770 at Stewart Street, the Old Artillery Ground, Spitalfields, London, the eldest of the six sons of Job Allen (1734–1800) and his wife, Margaret Stafford (d. 1830). His father, a silk manufacturer, was a member of the ...

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Bacharach, Alfred Louis (1891–1966), food scientist and musician, was born in Hampstead, London, on 11 August 1891, the son of Otto Leonhard Bacharach, a stockbroker, of Hampstead, and his wife, Alice Eva Wagner. He lived throughout his life in Hampstead. Bacharach was educated at ...

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Bath, Adelard of (b. in or before 1080?, d. in or after 1150), scientist and translator, was a pioneer in introducing Arabic mathematics into England.

Although absolute confidence cannot be placed in the autobiographical details included within the fictitious context of his literary works, ...

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Blagden, Sir Charles (bap. 1748, d. 1820), physician and secretary of the Royal Society, was born at Wotton under Edge in Gloucestershire, where he was baptized on 19 April 1748, a younger son of John Blagden (1715–1750) and Elizabeth Phelps (1716–1784). His family was involved in various ways in the local textile industry. His early education is obscure but he studied medicine at the ...

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Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose (1858–1937) by unknown photographer, 1930 © Classic Image / Alamy

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Bose, Sir Jagadish Chandra [Jagadis Chunder] (1858–1937), physicist and biologist, was born in the district of Vikrampur, close to Dacca, Bengal, India, on 30 November 1858, the son of Bhagaban Chandra Bose, deputy magistrate of neighbouring Faridpur, and his wife, Bamasundari. Though a Hindu, his father was one of the early members of the Western-influenced Hindu reform movement known as Brahmoism, along with his more traditionally Hindu wife....

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(Bertram) Vivian Bowden, Baron Bowden (1910–1989) by Walter Bird, 1965 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Bowden, (Bertram) Vivian, Baron Bowden (1910–1989), scientist and educationist, was born on 18 January 1910 in Chesterfield, Derbyshire, the elder child and only son of Bertram Caleb Bowden, primary school headmaster in Chesterfield, and his wife, Sarah Elizabeth, daughter of John Thomas Moulton...

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William Speirs Bruce (1867–1921) by unknown photographer reproduced by permission of the Scott Polar Research Institute

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Bruce, William Speirs (1867–1921), polar scientist and explorer, was born at 43 Kensington Gardens Square, Paddington, London, on 1 August 1867. He was the fourth child of a family of eight children and had one younger brother and six sisters. His father, Samuel Noble Bruce MRCS...

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Brundrett, Sir Frederick (1894–1974), government scientist, was born on 25 November 1894 at Sunny Bank, Ebbw Vale, Monmouthshire, the eldest in the family of seven sons and three daughters of Walter Brundrett, of Hinxhill, Kent, general secretary and accountant with the Ebbw Vale Steel, Iron, and Coal Company...

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Buist, George (1804–1860), newspaper editor and scientist, was born at Tannadice, Forfarshire, on 17 November 1804, the second of the nine children of the Revd John Buist (1752/3–1845) and his wife, Margaret Jafferson. After being taught at home by his father until 1817 he was educated at ...

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Bulkeley, Sir Richard, second baronet (1660–1710), scientist and author, was born on 17 August 1660 in Dublin, the first son of Sir Richard Bulkeley, first baronet (1634–1685), and his first wife, Catherine, née Bysse (d. 1662). He entered Trinity College, Dublin, in September 1676, graduating BA in 1680, and MA in 1682. ...

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George Douglas Campbell, eighth duke of Argyll in the peerage of Scotland, and first duke of Argyll in the peerage of the United Kingdom (1823–1900) by George Frederic Watts, c. 1860 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Campbell, George Douglas, eighth duke of Argyll in the peerage of Scotland, and first duke of Argyll in the peerage of the United Kingdom (1823–1900), politician and scientist, was the second son of John Douglas Edward Henry Campbell (1777–1847) and his second wife, ...

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Chipchase, John (1747–1816), Quaker diarist, schoolmaster, and amateur scientist, was born in Stockton-upon-Tees on 5 October 1747, the son of John Chipchase, shoemaker, of nearby Norton, and Mary, neé Johnson. He married Mary Hunt on 25 July 1776, and the couple had four children, ...

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Close, Maxwell Henry (1822–1903), geologist and man of science, born on 23 October 1822 at 7 Merrion Square East, Dublin, the eldest son among the eight sons and three daughters of Henry Samuel Close, later of Newtown Park House, co. Dublin, and his wife, ...