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Sir Isaiah Berlin (1909–1997) by Lucinda Douglas-Menzies, 1988 © Lucinda Douglas-Menzies; collection National Portrait Gallery, London

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Berlin, Sir Isaiah (1909–1997), philosopher and historian of ideas, was born on 6 June 1909 in Riga, Latvia, then part of the Russian empire, the son of Mendel Borisovitch Berlin (1884–1953), a prosperous timber merchant whose main business was supplying wooden sleepers for the Russian railways, and his wife, ...

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Gilbert Murray and Clement C. J. Webb

revised by Michael H. Crawford

Bevan, Edwyn Robert (1870–1943), ancient historian and philosopher, was born in London on 15 February 1870, the seventh son of Robert Cooper Lee Bevan (1809–1890), banker, of Fosbury House, Wiltshire, and Trent Park, and the third with his second wife, the translator and poet ...

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Robin George Collingwood (1889–1943) by Walter Stoneman, 1934 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Collingwood, Robin George (1889–1943), philosopher and historian, was born on 22 February 1889 at Cartmel Fell, Lancashire, the only son and third of the four children of William Gershom Collingwood (1854–1932) and his wife, Edith Mary (1857–1928), daughter of Thomas Isaac, corn merchant, of ...

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Davie, George Elder (1912–2007), philosopher and historian, was born on 18 March 1912 at 4 Baxter Park Terrace, Dundee, the only child of George Myles Davie, master pharmacist, and his wife, Isabella Calder, née Elder, schoolteacher. He was a pupil at Dundee high school...

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Gordon Goodwin

revised by Jeffrey R. Smitten

Doig, David (1718/19–1800), writer on history and philosophy, was born at Monifieth, Forfarshire, where he was baptized on 17 February 1719. His father, also David Doig, who was a small farmer, died while his son was an infant, and his mother remarried. Because of poor eyesight ...

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Adam Ferguson (1723–1816) by Sir Henry Raeburn, 1790s courtesy of the University of Edinburgh's Collections

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Ferguson, Adam (1723–1816), philosopher and historian, was born on 20 June 1723 in the village of Logierait, Perthshire, the youngest of nine children born to Adam Fergusson (1672–1754), the parish minister, and his wife, Mary (b. c.1680), daughter of Patrick Gordon...

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Halévy, Élie (1870–1937), historian and philosopher, was born on 6 September 1870 at Étretat, Normandy, in France. He was the elder son of Ludovic Halévy (1834–1908), writer and librettist, and his wife, Louise, née Bréguet (1847–1930), heir to the industrialist and scientist Louis Bréguet...

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Hume, David (1711–1776), philosopher and historian, was born in Edinburgh, probably in the family's home in the Lawnmarket, on 26 April 1711. He was the second son and third child of Joseph Home of Ninewells (1681–1713), landowner and advocate, and Katherine Falconer (1683–1745)...

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David Hume (1711–1776) by Allan Ramsay, 1766 © Scottish National Portrait Gallery

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Hutchinson, Marjorie Eileen Henrietta Grice- [married name Marjorie Eileen Henrietta von Schlippenbach], Baroness von Schlippenbach (1909–2003), historian of economic thought and Hispanist, was born on 26 May 1909 at The Lodge, Silverdale Road, Eastbourne, Sussex, the only child of George William Grice-Hutchinson (1877–1959)...

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Hutchison, Terence Wilmot (1912–2007), philosopher and historian of economics, was born in Bournemouth on 13 August 1912, the son of Robert Langton Douglas (1864–1951), art historian, and Grace Hutchison (1870–1935). He was not aware of his father's identity until his teens. He was brought up as a Christian Scientist by his Australian mother (in his forties he was confirmed in the ...

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Kolakowski, Leszek (1927–2009), philosopher and historian of ideas, was born on 23 October 1927 in Radom, Poland, the son of Jerzy Kolakowski (d. 1943), a social activist in the co-operative movement and essayist, and his wife, Lucyna, née Pietrusiewicz (d. 1930)...

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Mair [Major], John (c. 1467–1550), historian, philosopher, and theologian, was born into a farming family in the village of Gleghornie near Haddington, south-east of Edinburgh. He attended the grammar school at Haddington and went on, though not perhaps immediately, to university. Although it has been supposed that ...

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Markus, Robert Austin (1924–2010), historian and philosopher, was born Róbert Imre Márkus on 8 October 1924 in Budapest, Hungary, the son of Gyözö (Victor) Márkus (1897–1971), director of an engineering firm, and his wife, Lili (Lily), née Elek (1900–1962), artist. He attended the ...

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A. W. Pickard-Cambridge

revised by M. C. Curthoys

Newman, William Lambert (1834–1923), ancient historian and philosopher, the second son of Edmund Lambert Newman, solicitor, of Cheltenham, was born at Cheltenham on 21 August 1834. He was educated at Cheltenham College (1846–51) and at Balliol College, Oxford, which he entered as a scholar in 1851 and where his tutors were ...

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Maker: Walter Stoneman

Hastings Rashdall (1858–1924) by Walter Stoneman, 1918 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Rashdall, Hastings (1858–1924), moral philosopher, theologian, and historian, was born at 34 St George's Road, Kensington, London, on 24 June 1858, the eldest child of the Revd John Rashdall (d. 1869?), incumbent of Eaton Chapel, Eaton Square, London, and afterwards (1864–9) of ...