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Calouste Sarkis Gulbenkian (1869–1955) by Charles Joseph Watelet, 1912 by courtesy of the Gulbenkian Museum, Lisbon


Gulbenkian, Calouste Sarkis (1869–1955), oil industrialist and benefactor, was born in Scutari, adjacent to Constantinople, in Turkey, on 23 March 1869, one of three sons of Sarkis Gulbenkian (d. 1894), a trader in kerosene and a provincial banker. Although he respected his family, ...


Wakefield, Charles Cheers, first Viscount Wakefield (1859–1941), oil industrialist and philanthropist, was born in Liverpool on 12 December 1859, the fourth and youngest son (there were no daughters) of John Wakefield, a customs official, and his wife, Mary, daughter of William Cheers, of ...