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Auerbach, Charlotte [Lotte] (1899–1994), geneticist, was born on 14 May 1899 at Krefeld, Germany, the only child of Friedrich (Fritz) Auerbach (1870–1925), public health chemist in Berlin, and his wife, Selma, née Sachs (d. 1955), daughter of a general practitioner from Jauer...

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A. R. Todd and C. S. Nicholls

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Bergel, Franz (1900–1987), biochemist, was born on 13 February 1900 in the Alsergrund quarter of Vienna, the younger child and second son of Moritz Martin Bergel, a Hungarian immigrant and wine merchant, and his wife, Barbara Betty Spitz, daughter of a carpet manufacturer. He was educated at a ...

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Blaschko, Hugh [formerly Karl Felix Hermann] (1900–1993), biochemist and pharmacologist, was born on 4 January 1900 in Friedrichstrasse, Berlin, the only son and second of the three children of Alfred Blaschko (1858–1922), dermatologist and venereologist, and his wife, Johanna (1873–1943), daughter of ...

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See Chain, Sir Ernst Boris

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Sir Ernst Boris Chain (1906–1979) by Wolfgang Suschitzky, 1944 © Wolfgang Suschitzky / National Portrait Gallery, London

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Chain, Sir Ernst Boris (1906–1979), biochemist, was born on 19 June 1906 in Berlin, the only son of the two children of Dr Michael Chain, a Russian-born industrial chemist, and his wife, Margarete Eisner, who was related to Kurt Eisner, the socialist prime minister of ...

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Kodicek, Egon Hynek (1908–1982), biochemist and nutritionist, was born on 3 August 1908 in Kamenny Ujezd, Bohemia, the son of Emma and Samuel Kodicek. In 1915 his father, a doctor, moved with the family to Budweis, as medical chief of the military hospital there. ...

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Maker: Elliott & Fry

Sir Hans Adolf Krebs (1900–1981) by Elliott & Fry, 1958 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Krebs, Sir Hans Adolf (1900–1981), biochemist, was born on 25 August 1900 at Hildesheim, Germany, the elder son and second of the three children of Dr Georg Krebs, an otolaryngologist, and his wife, Alma Davidson, the daughter of a banker. After serving in the army for two months in 1918 he undertook pre-clinical medical studies at the universities of ...

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Lehmann, Hermann (1910–1985), biochemist and human geneticist, was born on 8 July 1910 in Halle, Saxony, Germany, the youngest of the four children of Paul Lehmann (d. c.1927), publisher, and his first wife, Bella, née Apelt (d. c.1913). His parents were both German. His eldest sister, ...

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Mendes da Costa, Emanuel (1717–1791), naturalist, was born on 5 June 1717, the ninth and youngest child of John Abraham Mendes da Costa (1683–1763), a Jewish merchant of Portuguese descent who came to London from Rouen; his wife (and first cousin) was Esther (Ester), otherwise Johanna (1692–1749)...

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Morris, Noah (1893–1947), biochemist and physician, was born on 4 October 1893 at 150 Stobcross Street, Glasgow, one of five children (four sons and a daughter) of Henry Morris, formerly Sachs, general dealer, later jeweller, and his wife, Sarah, née Gershuni or Gersuny...

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Neuberger, Albert (1908–1996), biochemist, was born on 15 April 1908 at Hassfurt, Germany, the first of the three children of Max Neuberger (1877–1931), cloth merchant and businessman, and Bertha, née Hiller (1888–1974), both religious Jews. He was educated first at home, mainly by private teachers or clergymen, with much emphasis on classics, including Latin and Greek, then at a ...

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Neuberger, Michael Samuel (1953–2013), molecular biologist and immunologist, was born on 2 November 1953 at 38 Cheniston Gardens, Kensington, London, the fourth son of Albert Neuberger (1908–1996), a distinguished biochemist, and his Swiss wife, Lilian Ida, née Dreyfus (1912–2007). At the time of his birth registration the family lived at ...

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Orgel, Leslie Eleazer (1927–2007), theoretical chemist and molecular biologist, was born on 12 January 1927 at 17 St Kildas Road, Stoke Newington, London, the son of Simon Orgel, a boot and shoe-lace dealer, and his wife, Deborah, née Grivisch. He was educated at the ...

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Pam, Albert Samuel (1875–1955), natural historian and financier, was born on 26 June 1875 at Clapham, London, eldest of three sons of Leopold Pam (1838–1909), merchant and rentier, and his wife, Philippine (1851–1938), who had Anglicized her Austrian maiden name of Fürth (or Fuerth)...

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Dame Miriam Louisa Rothschild (1908–2005) by Tessa Traeger, 2001 © Tessa Traeger / National Portrait Gallery, London

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Rothschild, Dame Miriam Louisa (1908–2005), naturalist, entomologist, and conservationist, was born on 5 August 1908 at Ashton Wold, Ashton, near Oundle, Northamptonshire, the eldest daughter of (Nathaniel) Charles Rothschild (1877–1923), merchant, banker, and conservationist, and his wife, Rozsika (1870–1940), third daughter of Colonel Alfred von Wertheimstein...

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Maker: Walter Stoneman

Redcliffe Nathan Salaman (1874–1955) by Walter Stoneman Godfrey Argent Studios / Royal Society

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Salaman, Redcliffe Nathan (1874–1955), geneticist and Jewish activist, was born Nathan Redcliffe Salaman, at 100 Redcliffe Gardens, Kensington, London, on 12 September 1874, the ninth of the fifteen children of Myer Salaman (1835/6–1896), a wealthy ostrich feather merchant, and his wife, Sarah Soloman (1844–1931)...