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Allibone, Thomas Edward [Ted] (1903–2003), physicist and electrical engineer, was born on 11 November 1903 at 10 Melbourne Road, Nether Hallam, Sheffield, the son of Henry James Allibone, schoolteacher, and his wife, Eliza, née Kidger, a farmer's daughter. He was educated at the ...

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J. A. Ratcliffe

revised by Roger Hutchins

Appleton, Sir Edward Victor (1892–1965), physicist, was born in Maperton Road, Bradford, Yorkshire, on 6 September 1892, the eldest child of Peter Appleton, of Eccleshill, Bradford, a warehouse clerk on the staff of Charles Senior & Co., and his wife, Mary Wilcock.

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Norman Feather

revised by Peter Osborne

Aston, Francis William (1877–1945), physicist, was born at Church Lane, Harborne, near Birmingham on 1 September 1877, the third of the seven children of William Aston, gun manufacturer, and his wife, Fanny Charlotte, daughter of Isaac Hollis, a gunmaker. From Harborne vicarage school...

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Ayrton, William Edward (1847–1908), electrical engineer and physicist, was born in London on 14 September 1847, the son of the accomplished barrister and linguist Edward Nugent Ayrton (1815–1873), thereby joining a family long connected with law and music, and traditionally supportive of women's rights. ...

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Baker, Philip John Noel-, Baron Noel-Baker (1889–1982), politician and Nobel prizewinner, was born Philip John Baker at Woodstock, Brondesbury Park, London, on 1 November 1889, the sixth and penultimate child of (Joseph) Allen Baker (1852–1918) and his wife, Elizabeth Balmer Moscrip. His father had moved to ...

Article

A. M. Clerke

revised by Iwan Rhys Morus

Barlow, Peter (1776–1862), mathematician and physicist, was born in the parish of St Simon, Norwich, on 13 October 1776, the son of Peter Barlow (bap. 1738, d. 1787) and his wife, Catherine, née Blomfield (bap. 1747, d. 1814). Details of his early life are sparse. He was educated at a local foundation school before starting work in trade; later he became a schoolmaster, and, having by his own exertions attained considerable scientific knowledge, he became a regular correspondent of the ...

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Bauer, Franz Andreas (1758–1840), microscopist and botanical artist, was born on 4 October 1758 in Feldsberg, Austria (now Valtice, Czech Republic). He was the second of the four sons of Lukas Bauer or Baur (1706/1707–1762), a religious and court painter to the ...

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Beale, Lionel Smith (1828–1906), physician and microscopist, was born on 5 February 1828 at Bedford Street, Covent Garden, London, the only son of Lionel John Beale (1796–1871), surgeon and first medical officer of health for St Martin-in-the-Fields, and Frances Smith Beale (1800–1849), the third daughter of ...

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Benjamin, (Thomas) Brooke (1929–1995), mathematician and physicist, was born on 15 April 1929 at 5 The Laund, Wallasey, Cheshire, the eldest of the three children of Thomas Joseph Benjamin (1884–1960), solicitor and high-court registrar, and his wife, Ethel Mary (1900–1975), daughter of Henry Brooke...

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Bernal, (John) Desmond (1901–1971), physicist, was born on 10 May 1901 at Brookswatson, Nenagh, co. Tipperary, eldest of the three sons and two daughters of Samuel George Bernal, a farmer of Limerick, and his wife, Elizabeth Miller, elder daughter of the Presbyterian minister in ...

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Blackett, Patrick Maynard Stuart, Baron Blackett (1897–1974), physicist and government and military adviser, was born on 18 November 1897 at Kensington, London, the only son and the second of three children of Arthur Stuart Blackett (1865–1922), stockbroker, and his wife, Caroline Frances (1868–1954)...

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Bose, Sir Jagadish Chandra [Jagadis Chunder] (1858–1937), physicist and biologist, was born in the district of Vikrampur, close to Dacca, Bengal, India, on 30 November 1858, the son of Bhagaban Chandra Bose, deputy magistrate of neighbouring Faridpur, and his wife, Bamasundari. Though a Hindu, his father was one of the early members of the Western-influenced Hindu reform movement known as Brahmoism, along with his more traditionally Hindu wife....

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Bourdillon, Thomas Duncan (1924–1956), mountaineer and physicist, was born at 24 Norland Square, North Kensington, London, on 16 March 1924, the elder son of Robert Benedict Bourdillon (1889–1971), scientist, and his wife, Harriet Ada Barnes. He was educated at Gresham's School, Holt, and ...

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Bowden, (Frank) Philip (1903–1968), experimental physicist, was born on 2 May 1903, at Hobart, Tasmania, the sixth of the seven children of Frank Prosser Bowden, telegraph and telephone manager for Tasmania, and his wife, Grace Elizabeth Hill. Both his parents were Tasmanian. He was educated at the ...

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Boys, Sir Charles Vernon (1855–1944), physicist and inventor, was born at the rectory, Wing, Uppingham, Rutland, on 15 March 1855, the eighth child of five sons and four daughters of the rector, Charles Boys, and his wife, Caroline Goodrich Dobbie.

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Bragg, Sir William Henry (1862–1942), physicist, was born at Westward, near Wigton in Cumberland, on 2 July 1862, the eldest of the three sons of Robert John Bragg (1830–1885), a merchant navy officer who became a farmer at Stoneraise Place, Westward. His mother, ...

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Bragg, Sir (William) Lawrence (1890–1971), physicist and crystallographer, was born on 31 March 1890 at 58/60 Lefevre Terrace, Adelaide, Australia, the elder son (the younger, Robert, was killed at Gallipoli in 1915) and eldest of the three children of Sir William Henry Bragg (1862–1942)...

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Cahn, Robert Wolfgang (1924–2007), materials scientist, was born on 9 September 1924 in Fürth, Bavaria, the first of two children of Martin Cahn (1896–1963), accountant and merchant, and his wife, Else, née Heinemann (1896–1962). His family was Jewish, assimilated into the business community. His maternal grandfather, ...

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Campbell [formerly Douglas], Archibald Campbell, first Baron Blythswood (1835–1908), politician and physicist, was born in Florence on 22 February 1835, the eldest of the nine children of Archibald Douglas (1809–1868), laird of Mains, and his wife, Caroline Agnes, the daughter of Mungo Dick...

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Chadwick, Sir James (1891–1974), nuclear physicist, was born on 20 October 1891 at Bollington, near Macclesfield, the eldest of the three sons and one daughter (who died young) of John Joseph Chadwick, cotton spinner, and his wife, Annie Mary Knowles. Chadwick's father moved to ...