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Butler, James, first duke of Ormond (1610–1688), lord lieutenant of Ireland, was born at Clerkenwell, Middlesex, on 19 October 1610.

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James Butler, first duke of Ormond (1610–1688) by Sir Peter Lely, 1678 Kedleston Hall, The Scarsdale Collection (The National Trust). Photograph: Photographic Survey, Courtauld Institute of Art, London

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Carteret, Sir Philippe [Philip] de (1584–1643), landowner and office-holder, was born in Sark on 18 February 1584, the eldest son of Sir Philippe de Carteret (d. 1594) and his wife, Rachel, daughter of George Poulet, lieutenant-governor and bailiff of Jersey. His grandfather, ...

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Cornwallis, Charles, first Marquess Cornwallis (1738–1805), governor-general of India and lord lieutenant of Ireland, the sixth child and eldest son of Charles Cornwallis, fifth Baron and first Earl Cornwallis (1700–1762), and his wife, Elizabeth (d. 1785), daughter of Charles ‘Turnip’ Townshend, second Viscount Townshend...

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Charles Cornwallis, first Marquess Cornwallis (1738–1805) by John Smart, 1792 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Cromwell, Henry (1628–1674), soldier, politician, and lord lieutenant of Ireland, was born on 20 January 1628 at Huntingdon and baptized there at All Saints' Church on 29 January, the fifth of nine children and fourth among the five sons of Oliver Cromwell (1599–1658)...

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Henry Cromwell (1628–1674) by Christiaan Janszoon Dusart unknown collection; photograph Sotheby's Picture Library, London / National Portrait Gallery, London

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Day, William (1797–1849), assistant poor-law commissioner, was born on 15 December 1797, the eldest of the three children of William Day (d. 1807) and his wife, Susannah (d. 1810), of Montague Street, Bloomsbury, Middlesex. He matriculated at Brasenose College, Oxford, on 28 February 1816, graduated BA in 1820, and subsequently read law at ...

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Hart, Sir William Ogden (1903–1977), local government administrator and legal writer, was born on 25 May 1903 at 5 Lawson Road, Ecclesall Bierlow, Sheffield, the son of Sir William Edward Hart (1866–1942), a solicitor, who was town clerk of Sheffield (1913–31) and was knighted in 1929, and his wife, ...

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Hiorne, Edmund (d. 1669), local government official, was the son of Edmund Hiorne (d. 1629), yeoman, of Great Tew and Woodstock, Oxfordshire, and his wife, Elizabeth. Precise details of his education are lacking but it is evident that he was educated in the law, perhaps as an attorney, and that he had an excellent knowledge of accounting in the new style being adopted. In 1605 he became a freeman of ...

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Leigh, Alexander (c. 1683–1772), local government officer and industrial promoter, was born at Millgate, Wigan, but little else is known about his origins. During his lifetime his home town of Wigan was transformed from an archaic borough dominated by craft companies and disputes over burghal rights, office holding, and parliamentary elections, to the archetype of ...

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Montagu, Edward, first Baron Montagu of Boughton (1562/3–1644), politician and local administrator, was the second son of Sir Edward Montagu (c.1532–1602) of Boughton Castle, in the parish of Weekley, Northamptonshire, and his wife, Elizabeth (c.1542–1618), daughter of Sir James Harington...

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Edward Montagu, first Baron Montagu of Boughton (1562/33–1644) by unknown artist, 1630s in the collection of the Trustees of the National Museums of Scotland

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Napier, Robert (1610/11–1686), lawyer and office-holder, was the second son of Sir Nathaniel Napier (d. 1635) of More Crichel, Dorset, and Elizabeth, daughter and heir of John Gerard of Hyde, in the Isle of Purbeck; he was a grandson of Sir Robert Napier (d. 1615)...

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Radcliffe, Thomas, third earl of Sussex (1526/7–1583), lord lieutenant of Ireland and courtier, was the eldest son of Henry Radcliffe, second earl of Sussex (d. 1557) [see under Radcliffe, Robert, first earl of Sussex], and his first wife, Lady Elizabeth (...

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Thomas Radcliffe, third earl of Sussex (1526/77–1583) attrib. Steven van der Meulen [original, c.1565] private collection

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Taylor, Arnold Joseph [Joe] (1911–2002), historian and public servant, was born on 24 July 1911 at 36 High Street, Battersea, London, the youngest son of John George Taylor (d. 1942), and his wife, Mary Matilda, née Riley (1873–1965). As headmaster of Sir Walter St John's School, Battersea...

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Toynbee [née Atwood], Charlotte Maria (1841–1931), college administrator and local government official, was born on 30 March 1841 in Muswell Hill, Middlesex, the only daughter of William Atwood and his wife, Charlotte Maria, née Hodgskins, of Odiham. She had one brother. Her father was a linguist and clerk in the ...

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Charlotte Maria Toynbee (1841–1931) by Anna Massey Lea Merritt, 1908 private collection

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Vyvyan, Sir Richard, first baronet (1613–1665), politician and local administrator, was the eldest son and heir of Sir Francis Vyvyan (d. 1635) of Trelowarren, Mawgan in Meneage, Cornwall, and his second wife, Loveday, daughter of John Connock of Treworgy, St Cleer, in the same county. His father was governor of ...