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date: 15 September 2019

Gronniosaw, Ukawsaw [pseud. James Albert]locked

  • Vincent Carretta


Gronniosaw, Ukawsaw [pseud. James Albert] (1710x14–1775), freed slave and autobiographer, was probably born in Bornu (now north-eastern Nigeria), the youngest of the six children of the eldest daughter of the king of Bournou (Bornu). Spiritually dissatisfied with the animist faith in which he was brought up, he soon alienated himself from his friends and relatives by his constant questions challenging their faith in physical objects, as well as by his growing belief in the existence of an uncreated creator. Increasingly 'dejected and melancholy' (...

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