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(act. 1886–1911)
  • Jane Ridley


Souls (act. 1886–1911), were a late Victorian aristocratic clique loosely linked to the Conservative politician Arthur James Balfour, first earl of Balfour. An 'odd mixture of liberation and snobbery' (Lyttelton, (Octavia) Laura, Oxford DNB), they protested against the philistinism of contemporary aristocratic society, cultivating personal intimacy and friendship rather than field sports and ostentatious display. As a governing group with a distinct cultural identity, the ...

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