Show Summary Details

Page of
PRINTED FROM Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single article in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy).

Pugin, Augustus Welby Northmorelocked

(1812–1852)
  • Alexandra Wedgwood

Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (1812–1852)

by John Rogers Herbert, 1845

RIBA Library Photographs Collection

Pugin, Augustus Welby Northmore (1812–1852), architect, writer, and designer, was born on 1 March 1812 at 39 Keppel Street, Russell Square, London, the only child of Auguste Charles Pugin (1768/9–1832), architect, and Catherine Welby (c.1772–1833).

Early years

Pugin was a precocious child and grew up in a household full of pupils attending the school of architectural draughtsmanship run by his father. His formal education was minimal; he attended school at Christ's Hospital, London, briefly, but from an early age he was fascinated by medieval architecture and drawing. These interests he must have inherited from his father; from his mother he gained his energy and his ability with words. From 1819 the family made several visits to Paris and Normandy, both to see their French relations and to gather material for his father's books. The young Pugin's career as an independent designer began in 1827 with two very grand commissions. Benjamin Ferrey (1810–1880), a pupil of A. C. Pugin, who wrote the first biography of A. W. N. Pugin, tells the story of how he was discovered by a member of the firm of royal goldsmiths Rundell and Bridge in the print room of the British Museum, where he was copying the prints of Dürer. This connection resulted in the production for George IV of a Gothic standing cup now in the Royal Collection and known as the Coronation Cup, and unexecuted designs for a set of church plate, probably intended for St George's Chapel, Windsor. His next commission was also for George IV, as one of the craftsmen engaged by the upholsterers Morel and Seddon to furnish the new apartments at Windsor Castle. A considerable amount of Gothic furniture, very much in his father's style, survives in the castle.

After this glamorous start there followed a restless period for this lively and highly talented youth. As well as medieval architecture, Pugin was passionate about both the sea and the stage. He had his own boat, and began to make theatrical friends, one of whom was George Dayes, son of the artist Edward Dayes (1763–1804), and it was through him, Pugin wrote, 'that I first imbibed the taste for stage machinery and scenic representation to which I afterwards applied myself so closely' (Autobiography, fol. 20, V&A, National Art Library).

In 1829 Pugin became a stage carpenter at Covent Garden, and he later designed stage sets for William Grieve (1800–1844) at the King's Theatre, including one for the ballet Kenilworth in 1831, which was much praised. Also in 1829 he set up his own business, designing and making interior decorations and furniture, but, as a result of his inexperience and impracticality, it failed in 1831. At the same period he was introduced to James Gillespie Graham (1776–1855), the Scottish architect, and began to help him with his work. Pugin married in 1831 Anne Garnet (c.1811–1832), a connection of George Dayes, whom his parents thought to be socially beneath him and who died on 27 May 1832, a week after the birth of a daughter, Anne (1832–1897). This was the first of a number of personal tragedies: Pugin's father died in December the same year, followed a few months later by his mother, and finally his aunt Selina Welby, who left him a legacy which gave him some independence. He seems always to have needed female companionship and married in 1833 Louisa Burton (c.1813–1844), who also seems to have had theatrical connections.

These events encouraged Pugin to concentrate on becoming an architect, though his training for the profession was highly unusual. His knowledge of architecture was based on his detailed sketches and observation of many medieval buildings, both in Britain and in northern Europe. This study, which he continued throughout his life, was for him an essential activity and gave authority to his style. He also designed a series of imaginary Gothic buildings, all with medieval themes, in the form of little books with titles such as The Hospital of St John (1833), The Deanery, and St Marie's College (both 1834). These ideal schemes were presented fully furnished. During these years he continued to produce designs for furniture and metalwork and this aspect of his work culminated in three books that were published by Ackermann in 1835 and 1836.

In 1835 Pugin became a Roman Catholic, a turning point in his life. From then on he devoted himself to the furtherance of his faith and of Gothic architecture. His father, nominally a Catholic, was uninterested in religion but his mother, who fell under the influence of the preacher and theologian Edward Irving (1792–1834) and took her son to listen to Irving's lengthy sermons in the 1820s, brought him up a protestant. It seems clear that Pugin was drawn to Catholicism originally by the beauty of medieval architecture. The principal human influence was probably that of E. J. Willson (1787–1854), a Catholic architect in Lincoln and a collaborator of his father, to whom he wrote on 6 November 1834:

I have long seen the fallacy of the new sects, and trust ere long I shall be united in the original true and apostolick church which suffers no variation. I trust no man will attribute my motives solely to my love for antient architecture. For although I will allow the change has been brought about in me owing to my studies of antient art yet I have still higher reasons which I can satisfactorily account for if required for my belief.

A. W. N. Pugin to E. J. Willson, Fowler collection, Johns Hopkins University

From 1835 Pugin's diaries survive, which give much information about his life. In that year he built himself a house, St Marie's Grange, Alderbury, near Salisbury, and was working for the established architects James Gillespie Graham and Charles Barry (1795–1860), both of whom found Pugin useful in providing Gothic internal decoration and furnishing for their buildings. In the autumn of that year he drew for both men their competition entries for the new houses of parliament. His draughtsmanship, with its flowing lines and sureness of touch, always impressive, was then at its height. At the end of January 1836 Barry was declared the winner. Pugin continued to help him for a further year with the drawings needed for the preparation of the estimate.

In August 1836 Pugin published his most famous book, Contrasts, or, A parallel between the noble edifices of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, and similar buildings of the present day; shewing the present decay of taste: accompanied by appropriate text. The text explains the 'decline' of architecture following the Reformation and was influenced by the work of the sixteenth- and seventeenth-century English historians, particularly William Dugdale (1605–1686), and also by the more recent Roman Catholic bishop John Milner (1752–1826). The major interest of the book lies in the 'contrasts', drawings of satirical comparisons between splendid types of medieval buildings such as parish churches, chapels, episcopal residences, town halls, public inns, and so on, and their meagre early nineteenth-century counterparts. In his championship of Gothic and his criticism of Regency architecture, Pugin was in many ways following the ideas recently expressed with equal force by the writer and antiquary John Carter (1748–1817). The book stirred up considerable interest and controversy and contributed greatly to Pugin's growing reputation, particularly among Roman Catholics.

1837–1844

Pugin's career as an independent architect began in 1837 and expanded rapidly. His first commission was for Charles Scarisbrick (1801–1860) at Scarisbrick Hall, Lancashire, where he made substantial alterations between 1837 and 1845 to the existing sixteenth-century manor house, including the addition of a clock tower. Here he was able to draw together his knowledge of medieval architecture and decorative arts with ideas from his own ideal schemes, to create splendid and inventive interiors. In the same year of 1837 he had an introduction to St Mary's College, Oscott, Warwickshire, the Roman Catholic school and seminary, which became a centre for his influence in the Roman Catholic church. He provided the college, particularly the chapel, with fittings and furnishings, established a museum for medieval religious artefacts, and gave lectures to students on the history of medieval architecture. At the same time, and probably in the same place, he met John Hardman (1811–1867), the Birmingham button maker and medallist, who became his closest friend and colleague, manufacturing metalwork to his designs from 1838 and stained glass from 1845. Finally, in this year he made his first visit to Alton Towers, Staffordshire, the seat of John Talbot, sixteenth earl of Shrewsbury (1791–1852), who became his chief patron. His work at Alton Towers, an immense early nineteenth-century house around an earlier core, has been demonstrated to be much greater than originally thought (see Fisher).

Pugin quickly became a leading architect for new Roman Catholic churches. He found Salisbury inconvenient for his work and in 1837 moved to London, where he took lodgings in Chelsea. His first important commissions were for St Mary's Church, Derby (1837–9), and St Alban's, Macclesfield (1839–41). Both of these are in a Perpendicular style with good fittings and stained glass. The church at Macclesfield also contains a rood screen, separating the nave and chancel, which became an essential feature in all Pugin's churches. In 1840 he began the hospital of St John, Alton, for the earl of Shrewsbury, which was intended as an ideal religious community, modelled on medieval examples. Built gradually around three sides of a quadrangle, it has principally been used as a parish church, priest's house, convent, and school.

The Roman Catholic cathedral of St Chad, Birmingham (1839–41), was unusual in Pugin's œuvre both in style (that of the fourteenth-century Baltic churches) and in material (the red brick of industrial Birmingham), but it is a most successful building. In the interior, space is handled very effectively under the steeply pitched roof, which has a continuous slope over both nave and aisles. Opposite the cathedral stood the bishop's house (1840–41), now destroyed but an influential red-brick courtyard house. The builder was George Myers (1804–1875), who from 1838 erected most of Pugin's buildings. Pugin never had an office, unlike most successful nineteenth-century architects, but worked by himself, relying on a close group of colleagues who understood his swiftly drawn designs.

In 1841, when he published The True Principles of Pointed or Christian Architecture, Pugin felt confident about both the progress of the Gothic revival and the growth of the Roman Catholic church in England. In True Principles his message is directed at the architect. He begins by stating his two great principles for design: '1st, that there should be no features about a building which are not necessary for convenience, construction or propriety; 2nd, that all ornament should consist of enrichment of the essential construction of the building' (True Principles, 1). This theory closely follows that expounded by the Abbé Laugier (1713–1769) in his Essai sur l'architecture (1753), and later French rationalist writers, who, however, interpreted it in classical terms. It has also led some to consider Pugin as a forerunner of twentieth-century functionalism. He strongly believed in his own principles, and the clarity of his style, where ornament never overwhelms the essential construction, is an important characteristic. In the rest of the book Pugin demonstrates practical examples of good medieval architecture, and ridicules both the symbolism and the methods of construction of neo-classical architecture in a Christian northern country. He also considers the decorative arts with many forceful remarks in favour of appropriate Gothic patterns. As usual, he reinforces his argument with attractive and witty illustrations. In the same year he published a second edition of Contrasts with a substantially revised text in which he altered his admiration for late Gothic architecture to that of the fourteenth-century Decorated period and his blame for the 'decline' from the Reformation to the Renaissance. He also emphasized the social context of the superiority of the medieval Catholic world with two new contrasts, of towns and poorhouses. He had probably been influenced in this direction by a leading French liberal Catholic, Charles-Forbes-René, comte de Montalembert (1810–1870), whom he met in 1839, and who added a long appendix in French to this edition. It was titled 'Account of the destructive and revived pagan principle in France'.

The early 1840s was a period of great activity and success for Pugin. During this time he met the two other men who became his close colleagues, Herbert Minton (1793–1858), the Staffordshire pottery manufacturer, and J. G. Crace (1809–1889), the London interior decorator. He worked with great energy and speed, and was inundated with commissions for Roman Catholic churches throughout the United Kingdom, including Ireland. Among the most important were the Roman Catholic cathedrals of St George, Southwark, London (1841–8), St Barnabas, Nottingham (1841–4), and St Mary, Newcastle upon Tyne (1841–4), and Mount St Bernard's Abbey, Leicestershire (1839–c.1844), the first monastery in England since the Reformation. These cathedrals, along with twenty-two other ecclesiastical buildings by Pugin then under construction or already built, are shown in the frontispiece to An Apology for the Revival of Christian Architecture in England (1843). It is an immensely impressive display, shown as the new Jerusalem against the rising sun, but it illustrates Pugin's most sanguine hopes rather than facts. The great towers and spires with which Pugin hoped to crown his buildings, for example that of St George's, Southwark, in the centre of his picture, were often not built, or built only after years of struggle. Moreover, Pugin's churches frequently suffered from a lack of funds, or were built for poor urban communities in unattractive settings, such as the Roman Catholic churches of St Mary, Stockton, co. Durham (1840–42), St Wilfrid, Hulme, Manchester (1838–42), and St Oswald, Old Swan, Liverpool (1839–42).

In 1843 Pugin started to build his own house, St Augustine's (now The Grange), on the edge of a cliff looking out to sea at Ramsgate, Kent. In the same year he experienced his first major reverse when his designs for rebuilding Balliol College, Oxford, were rejected, principally because he was a Roman Catholic. At the beginning of 1844 he completed his most magnificent and scholarly book, the Glossary of Ecclesiastical Ornament and Costume, which explained the symbolism and use of vestments and church furnishings with a scholarly text and beautiful illustrations, including seventy-three chromolithographs (then a new technique). Many of the objects which Pugin described were no longer in common use, but after the publication of this book they were frequently revived by both Anglican and Roman Catholic communions. On 22 August 1844 Louisa, his second wife, with whom he had had five children, died suddenly. Following this personal tragedy Pugin received a letter from Charles Barry on 3 September, asking for his help with the fittings for the House of Lords. He therefore returned to work at the houses of parliament, which became one of his major occupations until his death.

1844–1852

From the end of 1844 the character of Pugin's work started to change. He received far fewer architectural commissions and his position as the leading architect to the Roman Catholic church was challenged by others such as M. E. Hadfield (1812–1885) and Charles Hansom (1816–1888). He was also attacked by critics, for example in The Ecclesiologist in January 1846, and some prominent priests, such as Nicholas Wiseman (1802–1865) and John Henry Newman (1801–1890), questioned his exclusive attachment to Gothic architecture and his devotion to rood screens in particular. He was, however, commissioned by the government in 1845 to build the Roman Catholic college of St Patrick, Maynooth, Ireland. His time was taken by work for the houses of parliament, and supplying endless designs for ecclesiastical plate, memorial brasses, and stained glass for John Hardman and of furniture, wallpaper, and textiles for J. G. Crace. By the beginning of 1845 John Hardman Powell (1827–1895), John Hardman's nephew, came to stay at Ramsgate to help Pugin with designs for stained glass and metalwork. He became Pugin's only pupil and in 1850 married his eldest daughter, Anne. Throughout this last period Pugin continued to write, mostly on polemical themes, but he also produced Floriated Ornament (1849), with its enchanting plates.

Pugin's collaboration with Barry at the houses of parliament produced some of his best-known and greatest achievements. Barry realized that he needed Pugin's knowledge of medieval detail and his ability to work swiftly and to make rich and vivid designs to give life to the interior of his great building. Barry retained control and Pugin would revise his designs to meet Barry's ideas. Barry protected Pugin's position by preventing the Treasury from putting the decorative work out to tender. He thus enabled Pugin to work with his friends who could interpret his hasty sketches: Hardman, who manufactured the metalwork and stained glass, Crace, whose firm executed the decorative painting and supplied wallpapers plus some furniture, and Minton, who manufactured the encaustic tiles. Barry and Pugin started with the interior of the House of Lords, which was planned as the climax of the building and forms their masterpiece. Here all the fittings, with the exception of the frescoes and statues, are Pugin's work and survive largely unaltered except for the stained glass, which was destroyed in the Second World War. The setting for the throne is particularly magnificent: the immense amount of ornament is always secondary to the construction, a triumph for Pugin's True Principles. The House of Lords was opened in 1847, after which Pugin continued to work on other interiors, including the House of Commons (which was finally opened in 1852), the libraries, and committee rooms. He designed great numbers of objects, both large and small, drawing on his experience to create a whole range of items, such as umbrella stands and gas lamps, which had no medieval precedent. For once Pugin was able to work with sufficient funds at his disposal to produce sumptuous results.

Although Pugin's work, other than the metalwork, was limited to the interiors, it seems probable that Barry habitually asked his advice and in this way he suggested his clock tower at Scarisbrick Hall, with its projecting clock storey and ornate steeply sloping roof, as the prototype for the clock tower at Westminster. Barry valued Pugin greatly and the two men worked together in harmony, a splendid combination of Barry's judgement and Pugin's imagination. After the deaths of both men the sons Alfred Barry (1826–1910) and E. W. Pugin (1834–1875) quarrelled over their fathers' respective contributions.

From 1845 Pugin built lovingly and slowly, at his own expense and next to his own house, the Roman Catholic church of St Augustine, Ramsgate, one of his most successful and individual churches. It lies beyond a cloister, with the east range of which building began. The plan is unusual, with nave and chancel of almost equal length, divided by a central tower, a south aisle almost as wide as the nave, south-east lady chapel, a south transept (the Pugin chantry), and a south porch. The exterior is of knapped flints and narrow bands of Whitby stone, the interior of Whitby stone with excellent woodwork, all in a strong early fourteenth-century style. Pugin also fitted it out generously. In 1846 there opened another of the few buildings with which Pugin himself was really satisfied, his beloved Roman Catholic church of St Giles, Cheadle, Staffordshire. It was built at the expense of the earl of Shrewsbury, who agreed with Pugin's aim to make it a model parish church in the Decorated style. Started in 1840, it is built of the local red sandstone with a magnificent west tower and spire, which dominates the town and surroundings. The interior is amazing: J. H. Newman described it shortly before it opened as

the most splendid building I ever saw. It is coloured inside every inch in the most sumptuous way. … the windows are all beautifully stained. The Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament is, on entering, a blaze of light—and I could not help saying to myself ‘Porta Coeli’.

Letters and Diaries, 11.210

Pugin's private life remained troubled after the death of his second wife. In November 1844 he proposed to Mary Amherst (1824–1860), the sister of the future Roman Catholic bishop of Nottingham and a relation of the earl of Shrewsbury. Mary accepted him, though her family disapproved, feeling that Pugin was socially inferior, but in May 1846 she entered the convent of the Sisters of Providence at Loughborough. Following this rebuff he met Helen Lumsdaine, the daughter of the rector of Upper Hardres-with-Stelling, Kent, at a neighbour's house. He proposed to her in November 1847 and they became engaged in January 1848, but this attempt also ended in disaster in April, following her father's implacable opposition to her becoming a Roman Catholic. Amid this personal turmoil Pugin's friends persuaded him to make a longer than usual continental sketching tour: he left London on 27 March 1847 and made his only visit to Italy, going to Rome, Florence, Venice, and Milan before arriving home on 17 June. Fortunately, in July 1848 he became engaged to Jane Knill (1825–1909), the youngest daughter of Thomas Knill, and they were married on 10 August. She brought order and tranquillity to his final years and they had two children. Pugin spent more time at home, conducting much of his work by post.

Pugin had both an entrepreneurial spirit for business and a propagandist zeal for promoting the Gothic style. In 1849 he wrote to Crace:

I am so anxious to introduce a sensible style of furniture of good oak and constructively put together that shall compete with the vile trash made and sold. These things are very simple and I am certain that with a little practice can be made to pay and sell well.

A. W. N. Pugin to J. G. Crace, PUG 6/19, RIBA

It must have become obvious, however, that the greatest publicity would come from participation in the Great Exhibition of 1851. His close colleagues combined to produce striking examples of their work, designed by Pugin, for an exhibition stand which they called ‘The mediæval court’. Hardman showed much metalwork, both domestic and ecclesiastic, and stained glass; Myers's display included the tomb of Bishop Thomas Walsh, furniture and the font, tabernacle, and statue which Pugin subsequently placed in his own church at Ramsgate; Minton showed ceramics and encaustic tiles, and Crace showed textiles, wallpaper, and furniture. These pieces formed an excellent demonstration of the high quality of craftsmanship, the understanding of medieval techniques, and the strength and clarity of Pugin's designs and his 'true principles', and they stood out among the many fussily ornate objects in the exhibition and were generally acclaimed. Pugin's desire, however, to improve the general standard of interior design was prevented by illness. After his death Hardman, Minton, and Crace all continued to use and adapt his designs.

Aggravated by constant overwork and the application of mercury, Pugin's health finally broke down by the end of February 1852 and he was certified insane. He was first placed in a private establishment in Kensington and then moved to the Bethlehem Pauper Hospital for the Insane. He returned to Ramsgate a few days before his death there on 14 September 1852; he was buried on 21 September in the Pugin chantry in St Augustine's Church. The cause of death was recorded on his death certificate as 'insane 6 months: convulsions followed by coma' (d. cert.). He left a young widow and eight children. His eldest son, Edward Welby Pugin, took over some of his practice. His estate was valued at £10,000, but his widow received a government pension and sold his library and fine collection of medieval artefacts in 1853.

The best-known portrait of the mature Pugin is that by J. R. Herbert (1810–1890) in the Palace of Westminster collection, but he has been vividly described by J. H. Powell:

Pugin was only just middle height but very strong, broad chest, large hands, massive forehead, nose and chin, well curved flexible mouth, and restless grey eyes, the expression of which turned inwards when in deep thought. His hair was darkest brown, thick, not crisp, and he shaved clean like a sailor. All his movements were rapid, full of mental and bodily energy, shewing a nervous and choleric temperament. His sight was ‘like a hawk's’: he never used or needed glasses either in making sketches from clerestory stained glass or working minutely, and most of his early designs were on a very fine scale, probably from having etched much.His memory was the marvel of all who knew him for long; the mind seemed to receive its impressions without a particle of mist or shadow, keen, definite and lasting, to be recalled at will unchanged. He was thorough and earnest in doing all he undertook with all his might, and not resting till it was accomplished. He was passionate, but believed his anger was always another's fault, honest rages with no malice in them, blowing over without leaving resentment.

Wedgwood, Pugin in his home, 176

Pugin's open and direct character were defining qualities, as Rosemary Hill has described:

Pugin was no respecter of persons. He used very nearly the same tone to everyone and was often tactless, but he had no spite or rancor. This directness made his friends and workmen love him, his opponents dread him, and more subtle temperaments, such as John Henry Newman, shudder with embarrassment.

Atterbury, 33

Pugin was completely uninterested in London society, enjoying his quiet family life at Ramsgate. In this he was the opposite of Barry, and his one attempt to become a member of the Royal Academy was unsuccessful. He was very methodical in his ways: as J. H. Powell put it, 'a rare thing for a genius to be orderly, but he was' (Wedgwood, Pugin in his home, 178). As a result there exists a large amount of documentation about him. His immediacy and his humour are evident in all his writing, most particularly his letters, many of which have survived and an edition of them, The Collected Letters of A. W. N. Pugin, Volume 1: 1830–1842, by Margaret Belcher, was published in 2001.

Pugin's influence on the course of the Gothic revival throughout northern Europe and the English-speaking world was great, spread principally by his writing. His central idea, the equation of Christianity with Gothic, triumphed, so that the visible symbol of church architecture for the rest of the nineteenth century became the pointed arch. He always had bitter critics, however, one of the first of whom was John Ruskin, who might have been expected to be in sympathy with many of his aims. It seems, however, that Ruskin's early hatred of Catholicism blinded him to Pugin's importance; he denied his influence and famously criticized St George's Cathedral, Southwark, for its 'eruption of diseased crockets' (J. Ruskin, The Stones of Venice, 1, 1851, 373). At the end of the nineteenth century, with a return to fourteenth- and fifteenth-century styles in the work of such architects as G. F. Bodley (1827–1907) and Thomas Garner (1839–1906) and such decorative artists as the stained-glass designer C. E. Kempe (1837–1907), there was renewed interest in Pugin's work. This lapsed again for the first half of the twentieth century, but in the 1960s there began a renewed appreciation of Victorian architecture which has grown steadily and, in Pugin's case, has led to several important books, the designation of a ‘Pugin room’ in the houses of parliament in 1981, an exhibition in the Victoria and Albert Museum in 1994, and the foundation in 1995 at Ramsgate of the Pugin Society, which has a newsletter entitled True Principles.

Sources

  • A. Wedgwood, A. W. N. Pugin and the Pugin family (1985) [incl. transcriptions of diaries and letters]
  • B. Ferrey, Recollections of A. N. Welby Pugin, and his father, Augustus Pugin (1861)
  • M. Belcher, A. W. N. Pugin: an annotated critical biography (1987)
  • J. H. Powell, ‘Pugin in his home: a memoir’, Architectural History, 31 (1988), 171–205
  • E. W. Pugin, Who was the art architect of the Houses of Parliament: a statement of facts, founded on the letters of Sir Charles Barry and the diaries of Augustus Welby Pugin (1867)
  • A. Barry, The architect of the new palace at Westminster: a reply to a pamphlet by E. Pugin, esq, 2nd edn (1868)
  • P. Stanton, Pugin (1971)
  • J. Macaulay, ‘The architectural collaboration between J. Gillespie Graham and A. W. N. Pugin’, Architectural History, 27 (1984), 406–20
  • M. J. Fisher, Alton Towers: a Gothic wonderland (1999)
  • P. Atterbury and C. Wainwright, eds., Pugin: a Gothic passion (1994)
  • R. Hill, ‘Reformation to millennium: Pugin's “Contrasts” in the history of English thought’, Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, 58 (1999), 26–41
  • P. Atterbury, ed., A. W. N. Pugin: master of Gothic revival (1995)
  • A. Wedgwood, Catalogue of the drawings collection of the Royal Institute of British Architects: the Pugin family (1977)
  • [A. J. B. Beresford-Hope], ‘The artistic merit of Mr. Pugin’, The Ecclesiologist, 5 (1846), 10–16
  • The letters and diaries of John Henry Newman, ed. C. S. Dessain and others, [31 vols.] (1961–), vol. 11
  • letters, RIBA BAL
  • The collected letters of A. W. N. Pugin, ed. M. Belcher, 1–2 (2001–3)
  • TNA: PRO, PROB 6/228, fol. 413v [will]
  • d. cert.
  • private information (2004) [M. Egan]

Archives

  • East Riding of Yorkshire Archives Service, Beverley, corresp. and papers relating to St Mary's, Beverley
  • priv. colls., corresp. and family MSS [microfilms in Parl. Arch., PUG/1 and 3]
  • RIBA BAL, corresp.
  • Ushaw College, Durham, corresp. and drawings relating to Ushaw College
  • V&A NAL, diaries, juvenile autobiography, corresp., and MSS
  • Yale U. CBA, corresp. and family MSS
  • Alnwick Castle, Northumberland, letters to Henry Drummond
  • Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Fowler collection, corresp.
  • Surrey HC, letters to Lord Midleton

Likenesses

  • A. J. Oliver, oils, 1819, priv. coll.
  • oils, 1840, NPG
  • J. R. Herbert, oils, 1845, Palace of Westminster, London [see illus.]
  • photograph, 1847, priv. coll.
  • E. W. Pugin? and G. Myers, stone effigy on tomb, 1853, R.C. Church of St Augustine, Ramsgate
  • J. Nash, lithograph, 1860, repro. in Ferrey, Recollections of A. N. Welby Pugin, frontispiece
  • marble podium relief, Albert Memorial, Kensington Gardens

Wealth at Death

£10,000: administration, TNA: PRO, PROB 6/228, fol. 413v

National Archives of the United Kingdom, Public Record Office, London