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Reference list

Holders of the Victoria Cross in the Oxford DNB

The Victoria Cross (VC) is Britain's highest award for conspicuous courage and bravery by members of the armed forces in the face of the enemy. It takes precedence over all other medals and orders, including the George Cross (awarded for bravery in a non-combat role).

The decoration, chosen by Queen Victoria, is in the form of a Maltese cross on a crimson ribbon. Each medal is made of bronze melted from enemy cannon captured at Sevastopol during the Crimean War and bears the royal crest and the inscription ‘For Valour’. Open to all ranks in the British (and later colonial, Indian, and Commonwealth) armed services, the VC was instituted by royal warrant in January 1856. The award is granted by the British sovereign and the first investiture ceremony was held in June 1857 by Queen Victoria. On this occasion the award was conferred on members of the armed forces whose deeds dated from the beginning of the Crimean War in 1854. In 1920 eligibility to the VC was extended to enable awards to be conferred posthumously (though there were earlier instances when this had occurred). In total 1350 men have been awarded the Victoria Cross since its foundation; the following are those who receive entries in the Oxford DNB, ordered by the date on which they performed the deed for which they were honoured.
1854Charles Davis Lucas (1834–1914), mate, Royal Navy; Bomarsund, Åland Islands, Baltic, 21–2 June 1854
1854Robert James Lindsay (1832–1901), captain, Scots Guards; Alma, Crimea, 20 Sept 1854
1854Collingwood Dickson (1817–1904), lieutenant-colonel, Royal Artillery; Crimea, 17 Oct 1854
1854William Peel (1824–1858), captain, Royal Navy; Sevastopol, Crimea, 18 Oct 1854
1854William Nathan Wrighte Hewett (1834–1888), lieutenant, Royal Navy; Sevastopol, Crimea, 26 Oct 1854; Inkerman, Crimea, 5 Nov 1854
1854Henry Hugh Clifford (1826–1883), lieutenant, rifle brigade; Inkerman, Crimea, 5 Nov 1854
1854Henry Hugh Manvers Percy (1817–1877), colonel, Grenadier Guards; Inkerman, Crimea, 5 Nov 1854
1854Sir Charles Russell, third baronet (1826–1883), major, Grenadier Guards; Inkerman, Crimea, 5 Nov 1854
1854Mark Walker (1827–1902), lieutenant, 30th regiment; Inkerman, Crimea, 5 Nov 1854
1854Wilbraham Oates Lennox (1830–1897), lieutenant, Royal Engineers; Crimea, 20 Nov 1854
1855Cecil William Buckley (1828–1872), lieutenant, Royal Navy; Genichersk,Crimea, 29 May 1855
1855Hugh Talbot Burgoyne (1833–1870), lieutenant, Royal Navy; Genichersk, Crimea, 29 May 1855
1855Howard Craufurd Elphinstone (1829–1890), lieutenant, Royal Engineers; Sevastopol, Crimea, 18 June 1855
1855Gerald Graham (1831–1899), lieutenant, Royal Engineers; Sevastopol, Crimea, 18 June 1855
1855Christopher Charles Teesdale (1833–1893), lieutenant, Royal Artillery; Kars, Crimea, 29 Sept 1855
1855John Edmund Commerell (1829–1901), commander, Royal Navy; Sea of Azoz, Crimea, 11 Oct 1855
1857James Travers (1820–1884), colonel, Bhopal contingent; Indore, India, July 1857
1857Henry Tombs (1824–1874), major, Bengal horse artillery; Delhi, India, 9 July 1857
1857Richard Wadeson (1826–1885), ensign, 75th regiment; Delhi, India, 18 July 1857
1857George Alexander Renny (1825–1887), lieutenant, Bengal horse artillery; Delhi, India, 16 Sept 1857
1857Herbert Taylor Macpherson (1827–1886), lieutenant, 78th regiment; Lucknow, India, 25 Sept 1857
1857Francis Cornwallis Maude (1828–1900), captain, Royal Artillery; Lucknow, India, 25 Sept 1857
1857William Olpherts (1822–1902), captain, Bengal horse artillery; Lucknow, India, 25 Sept 1857
1857William Hall (1827–1904), able seaman, Royal Navy; Lucknow, India, 16 Nov 1857
1857Harry North Dalrymple Prendergast (1834–1913), lieutenant, Madras engineers; Mandasor, India, 21 Nov 1857
1858Frederick Sleigh Roberts (1832–1914), lieutenant, Bengal artillery; Khudaganj, India, 2 Jan 1858
1858James John McLeod Innes (1830–1907), lieutenant, Bengal Engineers; Sultanpur, India, 23 Feb 1858
1858Samuel James Browne (1824–1901), captain, Punjab cavalry; Sirpur, India, 31 Aug 1858
1858(Henry) Evelyn Wood (1838–1919), lieutenant, 17th lancers; Sindhara, India, 29 Dec 1858
1864Charles Heaphy (1820?–1881), captain, Auckland rifle volunteers; Mangapiko River, New Zealand, 11 Feb 1864
1864John Carstairs McNeill (1831–1904), major, 107th foot; Ohaupo, New Zealand, 30 March 1864
1864William George Nicholas Manley (1831–1901), assistant surgeon, Royal Artillery; Tauranga Pah, New Zealand, 29 April 1864
1865James Dundas (1842–1879), lieutenant, Royal Engineers; Dewangiri, Bhutan, 30 April 1865
1865William Spottiswoode Trevor (1831–1907), field engineer, Bhutan field force; Dewangiri, Bhutan, 30 April 1865
1866Samuel Hodge (c.1840–1868), private, 4th West India regiment; Tubab Kolon, Gambia, 30 June 1866
1872Donald Macintyre (1831–1903), major, 2nd Gurkha rifles; Lalgnoora, India, 4 Jan 1872
1874Reginald William Sartorius (1841–1907), captain, 6th Bengal cavalry; Abogoo, Gold Coast, 17 Jan 1874
1875George Nicholas Channer (1842–1905), captain, 1st Gurkha rifles; Burkit Putus Pass, Malaya, 20 Dec 1875
1879John Rouse Merriott Chard (1847–1897), lieutenant, Royal Engineers; Rorke's Drift, Natal, 22–23 Jan 1879
1879Redvers Henry Buller (1839–1908), lieutenant-colonel, frontier light horse; Hlobane, Zululand, 28 March 1879
1879Garrett O'Moore Creagh (1848–1923), captain, Bombay staff corps; Kam Dakka, Afghanistan, 12–22 April 1879
1879George Stuart White (1835–1912), major, 92nd (Gordon) Highlanders; Charasia and Kandahar, Afghanistan, 6 Oct 1879
1879Euston Henry Sartorius (1844–1925), captain, 59th regiment; Shajui, Afghanistan, 24 Oct 1879
1879James Williams Adams (1839–1903), chaplain, Kurram field force; Killa Kazi, Afghanistan, 11 Dec 1879
1880William St Lucien Chase (1856–1908), lieutenant, Bombay staff corps; Deh Khoja, Afghanistan, 16 Aug 1880
1884Arthur Knyvet Wilson (1842–1921), captain, Royal Navy; al-Teb, Sudan, 29 Feb 1884
1892William James Gordon (1864–1922), lance-corporal, 1st West India regiment; Toniataba, west Africa, 13 March 1892
1897George Frederick Findlater (1872–1942), piper, Gordon Highlanders; Dargai Heights, India, 28 Oct 1897
1898Alexander Gore Arkwright Hore-Ruthven (1872–1955), captain, Highland light infantry; Gedaref, Sudan, 22 Sept 1898
1899Charles Fitzclarence (1865–1914), captain, Royal Fusiliers; Mafeking and Game Tree Hill, southern Africa, Oct–Dec 1899
1899; 1900(Ernest) Beachcroft Beckwith Towse (1864–1948), captain, Gordon Highlanders; Magersfontein, southern Africa, 11 Dec 1899; Mount Thaba, southern Africa, 30 April 1900
1899Walter Norris Congreve (1862–1927), captain, rifle brigade; Tugela River, Colenso, southern Africa, 15 Dec 1899
1900Lewis Stratford Tollemache Halliday (1870–1966), lieutenant, Royal Marine light infantry; Beijing, China, 24 June 1900
1902; 1914Arthur Martin-Leake (1874–1953), surgeon-captain, South African constabulary; lieutenant, Royal Army Medical Corps; Vlakfontein, southern Africa, 8 Feb 1902; Zonnebeke, Belgium, 29 Oct–8 Nov 1914
1914Khudadad Khan (1888–1971), sepoy, 129th Duke of Connaught's Own Baluchis; Hollebeke, Belgium, 31 Oct 1914
1914Philip Neame (1888–1978), lieutenant, Royal Engineers; Neuve Chapelle, France, 18 Nov 1914
1915Mir Dast (1874–1945), jemadar, 7th (Ferozepore) brigade; Ypres, Belgium, 26 April 1915
1915Charles Hotham Montagu Doughty-Wylie (1868–1915), lieutenant-colonel, Mediterranean expeditionary force; Gallipoli, 26 April 1915
1915John George Smyth (1893–1983), lieutenant, 15th Sikhs; Richebourg L'Avoue, France, 18 May 1915
1915Martin Eric Dunbar-Nasmith (1883–1965), lieutenant-commander, Royal Navy; Sea of Marmara, 19 May – 25 June 1915
1915Reginald Alexander John Warneford (1891–1915), flight sub-lieutenant, Royal Naval Air Service; Ghent, Belgium, 7 June 1915
1915Daniel Logan Laidlaw (1875–1950), piper, King's Own Scottish Borderers; Loos, France, 25 Sept 1915
1915(Charles) Geoffrey Vickers (1894–1982), second lieutenant, Sherwood Foresters; Flanders, 14 Oct 1915
1916Richard Bell Davies (1886–1966), squadron commander, Royal Naval Air Service, Ferrijik Junction, Bulgaria, 19 Nov 1915
1916John Alexander Sinton (1884–1956), captain, Indian Medical Service; Mesopotamia, 21 Jan 1916
1916John Travers Cornwell (1900–1916), boy, first class, Royal Navy; Jutland, 2 June 1916
1916Lionel Wilmot Brabazon Rees (1884–1955), major, Royal Flying Corps; Double Crassieurs, France, 1 July 1916
1916Adrian Carton de Wiart (1880–1963), lieutenant-colonel, 4th dragoon guards; La Boiselle, France, 3–4 July 1916
1916Donald Simpson Bell (1890–1916), second lieutenant, Yorkshire regiment; La Boiselle, France, 5 July 1916
1916Noel Godfrey Chavasse (1884–1917), captain, Liverpool Scottish regiment; Guillemont, France, 9 Aug 1916
1916William Leefe Robinson (1895–1918), lieutenant, Royal Flying Corps; Cuffley, Hertfordshire, 2–3 Sept 1916
1916Roland Boys Bradford (1892–1917), lieutenant-colonel, Durham light infantry; Eaucourt l'Abbaye, France, 1 Oct 1916
1917Gordon Campbell (1886–1953), commander, Royal Navy; north Atlantic, 17 Feb 1917
1917Frederick William Lumsden (1871–1918), major, Royal Marine Artillery; Francilly, France, 3–4 April 1917
1917Albert Ball (1896–1917), captain, Royal Flying Corps; France, 23 April–5 May 1917
1917Alfred Oliver Pollard (1893–1960), second lieutenant, Honourable Artillery Company; Gavrelle, France, 28–29 April 1917
1917William Avery [Billy] Bishop (1894–1956), captain, Royal Flying Corps; Cambrai, Belgium, 2 June 1917
1917–18James Thomas Byford McCudden (1895–1918), captain, Royal Flying Corps; France, Aug 1917–March 1918
1918Theodore Bayley Hardy (1863–1918), chaplain, 8th Lincolnshire regiment; France, 5, 25, and 27 April 1918
1918Karnabahadur Rana (1898–1973), rifleman, 3rd Queen Alexandra's Own Gurkha rifles; al-Qefr, Palestine, 10 April 1918
1918Alfred Francis Blakeney Carpenter (1881–1955), commander, Royal Navy; Zeebrugge, Belgium, 22–23 April 1918
1918Victor Alexander Charles Crutchley (1893–1986), lieutenant, Royal Navy; Ostend, Belgium, 9–10 May 1918
1918Edward [Mick] Mannock (1887–1918), major, Royal Flying Corps / Royal Air Force; France, –July 1918
1918John Standish Surtees Prendergast Vereker, sixth Viscount Gort (1886–1946), lieutenant-colonel, Grenadier Guards; Canal du Nord, France, 27 Sept 1918
1918William Harold Coltman (1891–1974), lance-corporal, North Staffordshire regiment; Mannequin Hill, Sequehart, France, 3–4 Oct 1918
1919Augustus Willington Shelton Agar (1890–1968), lieutenant, Royal Navy; Kronstadt, Russia, 17 June 1919
1940Roderick Alastair Brook Learoyd (1913–1996), acting flight lieutenant, Royal Air Force; River Ems, Germany, 12 Aug 1940
1940Eric Charles Twelves Wilson (1912–2008), acting captain, camel corps machine gun company; Tug Argan gap, British Somaliland, 15 Aug 1940
1940Eric James Brindley Nicolson (1917–1945), acting flight commander, Royal Air Force; Millbrook, Hampshire, 16 Aug 1940
1940–44(Geoffrey) Leonard Cheshire (1917–1992), wing commander, Royal Air Force; France and Germany, June 1940–July 1944
1941(Malcolm) David Wanklyn (1911–1942), lieutenant-commander, Royal Navy; Mediterranean, 24 May 1941
1941; 1942Charles Hazlitt Upham (1908–1994), second lieutenant, 2nd New Zealand expeditionary force; captain, 2nd New Zealand expeditionary force; Galatos, Crete, 25 May 1941; Ruweisat Ridge, north Africa, 14–15 July 1942
1941John Charles [Jock] Campbell (1894–1942), brigadier, Royal Horse Artillery; Sidi Rezegh, Libya, 21 Nov 1941
1942Anthony Cecil Capel Miers (1906–1985), lieutenant-commander, Royal Navy; Corfu harbour, 4 March 1942
1942Robert Edward Dudley Ryder (1908–1986), commander, Royal Navy; St Nazaire, France, 28 March 1942
1942Hugh Gordon Malcolm (1917–1942), wing commander, Royal Air Force; north Africa, Nov–Dec 1942
1942(Herbert) Wallace Le Patourel (1916–1979), major, Hampshire regiment; Teboura Gap, Tunisia, 3 Dec 1942
1943Lorne Maclaine Campbell of Airds (1902–1991), lieutenant-colonel, 51st Highland division; Wadi Akarit, Tunisia, 6 April 1943
1943Guy Penrose Gibson (1918–1944), wing commander, Royal Air Force; Ruhr dams, Germany, 16–17 May 1943
1944William Philip Sidney (1909–1991), major, Grenadier Guards; Carrocento, Italy, 7–8 Feb 1944
1944Tasker Watkins (1918–2007), lieutenant, Welch regiment; Normandy, 16 Aug 1944
1945Ian Edward Fraser (1920–2008), commander, Royal Navy; Johore Straits, Singapore, 31 July 1945
1945James Joseph Magennis (1919–1986), leading seaman, Royal Navy; Johore Straits, Singapore, 31 July 1945
1950Kenneth Muir (1912–1950), major, Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders; Korea, 23 Sept 1950
1951James Power Carne (1906–1986), lieutenant-colonel, Gloucestershire regiment; Imjin River, Korea, 22–23 April 1951
1951Philip Kenneth Edward Curtis (1926–1951), lieutenant, Gloucestershire regiment; Imjin River, Korea, 22–23 April 1951
1982Herbert Jones [H] (1940–1982), lieutenant-colonel, Parachute regiment; Goose Green, Falkland Islands, 28 May 1982
1982Ian John McKay (1953–1982), sergeant, Parachute regiment; Mount Longdon, Falkland Islands, 12 June 1982