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Reference list

Consorts of the monarchs of Scotland (1040–1707)

The names of the consorts of the monarchs of Scotland are unknown until Gruoch, wife of Macbeth, and her life dates are not certain. Until the twelfth century little is known about the marriages of the kings of Scots: it is not known, for example, whether Donald III (r. 1093–4, 1094–7) or Edgar (r. 1097–1107) were married.

The wives of the kings of Scots were styled queen by the end of the eleventh century. The husbands of Mary, queen of Scots, had varying titles: François was styled king of Scots, as was Henry Stewart, duke of Albany, although the title was frequently omitted in the last months of his life. James Hepburn, fourth earl of Bothwell, had to be content with promotion to duke of Orkney. Queen Anne's husband, Prince George of Denmark, received no title of honour in Scotland. William III and Mary II were joint reigning monarchs from 1689; neither is included here.
Gruoch (fl. 1040–1057?), consort of Macbeth, 1040–1057?
Ingibjorg (d. c.1067), first consort of Malcolm III, c.1060–c.1067
Margaret [St Margaret] (d. 1093), second consort of Malcolm III, 1069/70–1093
Etheldreda (fl. 1094), consort of Duncan II, 1094
Sybilla (d. 1122), consort of Alexander I, 1107–22
Maud [Matilda] (d. 1131), consort of David I, 1124–31
Ermengarde [Ermengarde de Beaumont] (d. 1233), consort of William I, 1186–1214
Joan (1210–1238), first consort of Alexander II, 1221–38
Marie [née Marie de Coucy] (d. 1284), second consort of Alexander II, 1239–49
Margaret [Margaret of England] (1240–1275), first consort of Alexander III, 1251–75
Yolande (d. in or after 1324), second consort of Alexander III, 1285–6
Elizabeth [née Elizabeth de Burgh] (d. 1327), consort of Robert I, 1306–1327
Joan [Joan of the Tower] (1321–1362), first consort of David II, 1329–62
Margaret [née Margaret Drummond] (d. in or after 1374), second consort of David II, 1363–9
Euphemia [née Euphemia Ross] (b. in or before 1329?, d. 1388/9), consort of Robert II, 1371–1388/9
Annabella [née Annabella Drummond] (d. 1401), consort of Robert III, 1390–1401
Joan [née Joan Beaufort] (d. 1445), consort of James I, 1424–37
Mary [Mary of Gueldres] (d. 1463), consort of James II, 1449–60
Margaret [Margaret of Denmark] (1456/7?–1486), consort of James III, 1469–86
Margaret [Margaret Tudor] (1489–1541), consort of James IV, 1503–13
Madeleine [Madeleine de Valois] (1520–1537), first consort of James V, 1536–7
Mary [Mary of Guise] (1515–1560), second consort of James V, 1538–42
François [François II of France] (1544–1560), first consort of Mary, 1558–60
Henry Stewart, duke of Albany [known as Lord Darnley] (1545/6–1567), second consort of Mary, 1565–7
James Hepburn, fourth earl of Bothwell and duke of Orkney (1534/5–1578), third consort of Mary, 1567
Anne [Anna, Anne of Denmark] (1574–1619), consort of James VI and I, 1589–1619
Henrietta Maria [Princess Henrietta Maria of France] (1609–1669), consort of Charles I, 1625–49
Catherine [Catherine of Braganza, Catarina Henriqueta de Bragança] (1638–1705), consort of Charles II, 1662–1685
Mary [Mary of Modena] (1658–1718), consort of James II and VII, 1685–9
George, prince of Denmark and duke of Cumberland (1653–1708), consort of Anne, 1702–8