18671973), chemical manufacturers and industrialists
, came to prominence with the life and career of Ludwig Mond, chemical technologist, manufacturer, and collector of works of art. He was the first of a notable dynasty of science-based businessmen, some of whom are better known under the name of Melchett (the family's title). The Monds played a leading role in the growth of large-scale industrial enterprise, but they also made themselves felt in other fields such as politics and the philosophy of management. They were patrons of the arts and respecters of scholarship. Judaism played a varying role in the family, insignificant for some, dominant for others.
Founder of the family
(18391909) was born on 7 March 1839 at Kassel, Germany, son of a Jewish merchant, Moritz B. Mond, and his wife, Henriette (née
Levinsohn). He was educated at first in Kassel, at the Realschule
and the polytechnic school. This was followed by university studies at Marburg, under Hermann Kolbe, and at Heidelberg, under Robert Wilhelm Bunsen. He then pursued a lifetime of industrial work, first in factories in Germany and the Netherlands, moving to England to John Hutchinson & Co. in Widnes in 1862 and, from 1864 to 1867, extending his experience in Utrecht. In 1866 he married his cousin Frida Löwenthal (18471923). They had two sons, Robert Ludwig and Alfred Moritz.
In 1867 Mond began his involvement in chemical business affairs by forming a partnership with John Hutchinson to promote a process for recovering sulphur from the waste products of the clumsy and uneconomic Leblanc process for making soda (a substance of central importance in many manufactures) from salt. From now on England was his home and he became a naturalized British subject in 1880. His success began, however, with another process. In 1872 he met Ernest Solvay, a Belgian chemist who was perfecting a better process of making soda (the ammonia-soda process, originated by H. G. Dyer and J. Hemming in 1838). Mond purchased rights to operate Solvay's process. He entered into partnership with , a friend from his Hutchinson days, to set up a Solvay process factory at Widnes. It took time to bring the process to commercial profitability, but by its success it turned the firm, within twenty years, into the largest producer of soda in the world.
Mond recognized the economic importance in all industry of energy sources and put his mind and inventive capacity to processes such as that for making producer gas, in which inconvenient solid fuel is converted into convenient gaseous fuel. He was also able to convert the nitrogen of the solid fuel into ammonia. Following the original efforts of William Grove he also made attempts to produce electrical energy direct from gaseous reactions, but was no more successful than many others before and after him.
Ludwig Mond's other most important, commercially fruitful, discovery originated in the study of failed experiments on the recovery of the chlorine lost in the calcium chloride waste of the ammonia-soda process. Nickel components and nickel compounds had been used in the apparatus. With two assistants, C. Langer and F. Quincke, Mond traced the faults to the conversion by carbon monoxide of the nickel to a hitherto unknown substance, nickel carbonyl. This was remarkable in being the first identified gaseous compound of a metallic element. Since the nickel carbonyl could easily be decomposed to yield pure nickel, Mond saw in this a completely novel metallurgical extraction process and proceeded to commercialize it with great success. He exploited Canadian nickel ores, which were given a preliminary enrichment in Canada and then shipped to a new works at Clydach, near Swansea, for the final purification by the carbonyl route. Several personal accounts of his work, presented in the first place as lectures, were later published. The work on nickel opened up new fields of investigation which were explored by his son Robert.
Allied with Brunner's business and political acumen, Mond's discoveries and his genius for developing their practical applications led to the establishment of the British chemical industry on a scale capable of challenging that of any other country. All the same, in spite of his identification with great industrial enterprises, he always maintained that scientific education should be centred on pure science, not on its profitable application, the industry growing out of the science, not the other way round. He made a personal statement of his convictions in this respect in an address to students at the opening of the Schorlemmer Laboratory at Manchester University on 3 May 1895. His own research was carried out in privacy. He bought a farm at Combe Bank, Sevenoaks, intending it for the use of his sons, and there built a useful laboratory.
Mond was very active in the organization and support of scientific societies, taking a lead (with Sir Henry Roscoe) to expand the small Lancashire Chemical Society into the nationwide Society of Chemical Industry, established in 1881. He supported this body financially until it could stand on its own feet, and acted as its foreign secretary until elected to its presidency in 1888. The society honoured him with its Messel medal, recognizing his leadership in the development of large-scale British chemical industry.
Mond was a man of impressive presence, not tall, but full-bearded and clearly of Jewish extraction, as is seen in a painting and several sculptures. He was elected to fellowship of the Royal Society in 1891, and to membership of the German Chemical Society, of the Società Reale of Naples in 1908, and of the Prussian Akademie der Wissenschaften in 1909. He received honorary doctorates from the universities of Padua (1892), Heidelberg (1896), Manchester (1904), and Oxford (1907). He was awarded the grand cordon of the Crown of Italy in 1909. Throughout his industrial career he was much concerned with the welfare of his employees, a care which extended into their retirement years. He was generous in his lifetime to scientific organizations, giving the Royal Society £16,000 in support of its Catalogue of Scientific Papers
and funding a prize at the Italian Accademia dei Lincei in memory of Stanislas Cannizzaro. His most notable benefaction was that to the Royal Institution of Great Britain, providing a house next door to its main premises to be used for research purposes under the name of the Davy-Faraday Laboratory.
In his will Ludwig Mond left £20,000 to the town of Kassel, with an additional £5000 for a Jewish charitable foundation. This was only one of many charitable gifts, to Jewish as well as other beneficiaries, many of them anonymous. One bequest was to the Munich Akademie der bildenen Kunst, a reflection of a personal enthusiasm. From 1892 onwards he was able to indulge his taste for works of art, and built up a fine collection, mainly early Italian. In this he was advised by Dr J. P. Richter who published a two-volume account of it in 1910. Subject to a life interest for his wife, the greater portion of his collection was left to the National Gallery.
After the birth of his sons Mond's main British residence was at Winnington, Cheshire, until 1884 when he moved to London. In addition he spent most of his winters in Rome, at the Palazzo Zuccari which he had bought and restored. He suffered from heart disease, from which he died on 11 December 1909 at his house, The Poplars, 20 Avenue Road, Regent's Park, London. In his later years he had given much thought to the Jewish religion, in which he had been brought up but whose observances he had neglected. He was buried with Jewish rites at the St Pancras cemetery, Finchley. His sons later erected a mausoleum there for all the family remains.
The second generation
The elder of Ludwig Mond's two sons, Sir Robert Ludwig Mond
(18671938), chemist and archaeologist
, was born at Farnworth, near Widnes, Lancashire, on 9 September 1867. He was educated at Cheltenham College, at Peterhouse, Cambridge, at Zürich Polytechnic, at Edinburgh University, and at Glasgow University, where he worked under Sir William Thomson. He became a good chemist and eventually had a number of papers to his credit on subjects which related to his father's discoveries, such as metal carbonyls, and the electrolytic production of zinc. He was the originator of a number of patents. However, he was not by temperament a solitary investigator and was less interested in novel discovery than in application and the encouragement of colleagues. For a time after his father's death he made trials of scientific farming methods at Combe Bank, Sevenoaks (which his father had bought with Robert's needs in mind), pioneering the production of high-quality milk from a selected herd of dairy cows. It was at Combe Bank, in the laboratory installed by his father, that he did most of his scientific investigation. He continued the connection with the Davy-Faraday Laboratory at the Royal Institution, was its honorary secretary for life (an appointment which had been a condition of his father's gift), and contributed substantially to its reconstruction and re-equipment in 1931. His industrial connections included a directorship of Brunner Mond & Co. and chairmanship of the Mond Nickel Company. His work with the nickel mines at Sudbury, Ontario, led him to make a close relationship with the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto, of which he became a trustee. He made it gifts of money and, later, of important objects from his archaeological investigations in Egypt.
Robert Mond was twice married, first, in 1898, to Helen Edith, third daughter of Julius Levis. They had two daughters. She died in 1905 following the birth of the second daughter, and in her memory Robert Mond founded the Infant's Hospital, Vincent Square. His second marriage, in 1922, was to Marie Louise, daughter of Guillaume Jean Le Manach, of Belle-Île-en-Terre, Brittany, and widow of Simon Guggenheim.
Robert Mond was greatly attached to life in France, having homes in Paris and at Dinard. He contributed largely towards the conversion of the town house of the ducs d'Estissac in the rue Dominique in Paris into the Maison de la Chimie, for meetings of French chemical societies and work on the documentation of chemical literature. He founded a Société des Amis de la Maison de la Chimie. He was a benefactor of the British Institute in Paris and an active supporter of the France-Grande Bretagne Association. He also contributed to the National Council for Chemistry and supported the cause of a chemistry house for Great Britain. In 1937 he helped to found a society for the history of alchemy (at present the Society for the History of Alchemy and Chemistry) and its journal, Ambix
. He was one of the original subscribers to the Hill Observatory Corporation for the establishment of an observatory at Sidmouth, Devon, later named the Norman Lockyer Observatory. He was personally responsible for some buildings and novel photographic astronomical equipment. He also made large benefactions to the universities of Liverpool, Manchester, and Toronto.
Convalescence in Egypt after a serious illness led Robert Mond to develop a lifelong and creative interest in Egyptian archaeology, to which he made considerable contributions not only as benefactor but also as a worker in the field. He collaborated first with Percy Edward Newberry, and then with Howard Carter and Arthur E. P. B. Weigall. Following his assistance in a first publication on the Theban tombs by Alan Gardiner and Weigall, he played a large part in the restoration and protection of the Theban necropolis. Resuming work after the interruption of the First World War, he initiated the preservation of the tomb of Rameses, in association with the University of Liverpool Institute of Archaeology. His work in this and other excavations brought him into close and sometimes active collaboration with some of the most distinguished archaeologists of his time, as for example a joint publication on The Bucheum
(1934) with Oliver Myers. He was a discriminating collector, exhibiting his collection magnificently in his own home in London and then bequeathing much of it to the British Museum. His support extended to the development of archaeological work by British scholars in Palestine when this became a British mandated territory under the League of Nations. He stimulated and gave financial help to the foundation of a British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem.
Another interest was that in model soldiers. Robert Mond gave the United Services Institution a gift of 900 figures representing all the regiments in Napoleon's army, a collection it had taken him thirty-five years to build up. With his brother Alfred he set up the mausoleum at the St Pancras cemetery, Finchley, which their father had envisaged, for the burial of members of the family. Eventually it was to receive both Jew and Christian.
Mond was knighted in 1932. Among the many honours he received, from academic bodies and governments, were the honorary degrees of LLD from the universities of Liverpool and Toronto, an honorary DSc from the University of London, the presidency of the Faraday Society, and the Messel medal of the Society of Chemical Industry, which his father had helped to found. He was elected fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and fellow of the Royal Society. He also received French honours, first officer and later commander of the Légion d'honneur, and then member of the Académie des Inscriptions et des Lettres, thus becoming a member of the Institut de France. He was elected president of the Société de Chimie Industrielle. He died in Paris on 22 October 1938, was cremated at the cemetery of Père Lachaise, and his ashes buried at Belle-Île-en-Terre.
Ludwig Mond's younger son, Alfred Moritz Mond
, first Baron Melchett (18681930), industrialist, financier, and politician
, was born at Farnworth on 23 October 1868. He was educated at Cheltenham College, and at St John's College, Cambridge. He began his adult life with the shock of failing his natural sciences tripos, but went on to Edinburgh University to study law with some success. He was called to the bar by the Inner Temple in 1894. Although his ambitions were mainly political he first made use of his considerable scientific ability. He put politics on one side for a while and in 1895 joined his father's business, Brunner Mond & Co., becoming a director in 1895 and, soon after, managing director. He combined this with being managing director of the Mond Nickel Company. In 1894 he married Violet Florence Mabel, daughter of James Henry Goetze, coffee merchant of Mincing Lane, London. They had one son, Henry Ludwig, who succeeded his father, and three daughters.
Alfred Mond's future success came from possessing a harmonious mixture of talents, which enabled him to look at the overall structure of industry in relation to its political relevance; he expressed his views in a book, Industry and Politics
(1927). He advocated and put into practice processes of rationalization and amalgamation, exemplified in his gradual dominance of the Welsh anthracite coal industry through Amalgamated Anthracite Collieries. He added to his directorships those of the International Nickel Company of Canada, the Westminster Bank, and the Industrial Finance Investment Corporation. He gradually took on a leading role in the creation by amalgamation and development of what must be considered his most long-lasting achievementone of the world's largest industrial corporations, ICI (Imperial Chemical Industries). An important factor in this success was his ability to encourage organization and research in the manufacturing process. He always advocated close co-operation between employer and employed. He believed that industry worked better in large units than in small and the aim of industry should be the achievement of greater units, and the effective joint use of resources. Nevertheless, he realized that there are limits to the size of enterprise that can be controlled effectively. From this stemmed his opposition to the ideas of socialism and of nationalization. He was anxious that there should be good relations between management and workforce and to this end insisted on good arrangements for the comfort and welfare of both blue-collar and white-collar workers wherever he was able to have an influence. He tried to encourage this attitude in others from both sides of industry.
Alfred Mond did his best to avert the coal strike of 1926 by bringing coalowners together in a joint selling organization and, following the general strike of 1926, he initiated meetings between leaders of the Trades Union Congress and of employers' organizations. He held meetings with Ben Turner, who was then chairman of the general council of the Trades Union Congress, and they established a method of conciliation, but there was not at the time sufficient cohesion between the various employers' organizations for this to lead anywhere.
Mond was not an immediately engaging character in appearance and manner, having remnants of the family German accent and a forbidding personal bearing. However his honesty and sincerity carried him through any social barriers and he was always eventually listened to with respectful attention. This was particularly true of his political career. He sat as a Liberal, first for Chester in 1906, then for Swansea from 1910, when he was created a baronet, to 1923 and then from 1924 to 1928. He was sworn of the privy council in 1913. He was not outstanding as a party man but was effective in office, as first commissioner of works (191621) in Lloyd George's coalition ministry, and then as minister of health from 1921 to 1922. In 1926, convinced he should adhere to the Conservative policy of protection, he joined the Conservative and Unionist Party.
Sir Alfred Mond's parliamentary life took a new turn in 1928 when he achieved a long-standing ambition to enter the House of Lords, as Baron Melchett of Landford in the county of Southampton. The spelling Melchett was a deliberate modification of the name of his home. He expounded a principle of imperial economic unity, was chairman of the Empire Economic Union, and in 1930 published a book, Imperial Economic Unity
, on the subject. His argument was, that in addition to tariff preferences, common action could produce large imperial combines through which production and marketing could be systematically allocated.
Sir Alfred Mond was generous to good causes and in 1924 provided for the housing at the National Gallery of his father's bequest of forty-two pictures. In 1929 he bought ground in Chelsea for the Chelsea Health Society, of which his wife was president. A deeply rooted enthusiasm which developed after the First World War came out of Mond's Jewish heritage. In 1921 he visited Palestine in company with Dr Chaim Weizmann. He became an enthusiastic Zionist, contributed a large sum to the Jewish Colonization Corporation for Palestine in 1928, and wrote for Zionist publications. He was an active member of the Jewish agency set up to administer the British mandate but resigned in 1930 in protest against a change in the British government's attitude to the national home in Palestine which followed the riots in Jerusalem. He was elected fellow of the Royal Society in 1928, and received honorary degrees from Oxford, Paris, and other universities. He died at his London home, 35 Lowndes Square, on 27 December 1930, and was buried in St Pancras cemetery, East Finchley.
The third generation
Henry Ludwig Mond
, second Baron Melchett (18981949), industrialist and financier
, only son of Alfred Mond, was born in London on 10 May 1898. He was educated at Winchester College and served from 1915 in the First World War, in the South Wales Borderers, entering before he was strictly old enough; he was wounded in 1916. He had ambitions to become a writer and poet but he had neither the talent nor the connections to make a success of this as a career, although his skill was later shown in political writing. His wife was (Amy) Gwen Wilson, whose origin is obscure but who described herself as daughter of John Wilson of Klerksdorp, Transvaal. She came from South Africa to study art, and was for a time involved with Augustus John. She later went to live with the writer Gilbert Cannan. Cannan was married to Mary (the former wife of J. M. Barrie), who cited Gwen as co-respondent in an action for judicial separation. Henry Mond crashed his motorcycle outside the Cannan flat in St John's Wood, was cared for by Gwen, and set up a maison-à-trois
with her and Cannan. Alfred regretted the arrangement and Henry's attempt to make a living in literature but went on supporting him. Eventually Cannan gave up Gwen to Henry and they were married on 30 January 1920. Henry then began to play an effective part in the family enterprises. He and Gwen had two sons and one daughter. The elder son, Derek, was killed in a flying accident on active service with the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve in 1945.
Henry Mond entered some of his father's businesses, becoming a director of ICI (of which he was deputy chairman in 194047), of the Mond Nickel Company, and of Barclays Bank. He was elected member of parliament as a Liberal for the Isle of Ely from 1923 to 1924, in which year he left the Liberal Party. He returned to parliament as a Conservative for the East Toxteth division of Liverpool in 1929 but vacated this seat on the death of his father and his succession to the peerage. (His wife was asked to fill the vacancy but was unable to accept.) Henry Mond was faced with the task of restoring the family finances since Alfred had made investments which were very vulnerable to the damage inflicted on them by the worldwide recession of the early 1930s. Henry patiently put his inheritance on a sound footing through a talent for finance which he exercised in all his many appointments.
On leaving the Commons, Mond shifted the balance of his interests away from politics and concentrated mainly on economics and industry. He believed that formal consultation, in a kind of third chamber, between some industrialists and financiers, some scientists and economists, and some ministers, could solve economic problems. He published two books on these issues: Why the Crisis?
(1931) and Modern Money
Henry Mond had been brought up as a not very active member of the Church of England but in 1933 reflection on his family history and the news of the treatment of the Jews in Germany persuaded him to accept formal conversion to the Jewish religion of his forebears. He became a champion of Zionism, but held that Jew and Arab could be persuaded to live harmoniously together, making his views public in a book, Thy Neighbour
(1937). He hoped for a time when the Jews could be established in their own land as an independent state. He advocated the evacuation of all Jews from Germany and some from other countries for transfer to Palestine, believing that this would lead to among other things the reconciliation of Germany to the rest of Europe. During the Second World War he continued to press the British government to facilitate the transfer of Jews to Palestine, there to form an independent state as part of the British Commonwealth. He later made visits to Palestine, was chairman of the British Agency for Palestine, and took a great interest in the Maccabean Jewish youth organization.
In addition to other books on economic subjects Henry Mond wrote one entitled Hunting and Polo
, which reflects his enthusiasm for riding: he was master of the Oakley Hounds. When his father died he closed Melchet Court and went to live at Colworth, Bedfordshire, which in 1941 he turned into a rest home for American nurses. He brought his industrial career to a close by resigning from ICI in 1947, when the condition of his health became clearly life-threatening. He died at Miami Beach, Florida, USA, on 22 January 1949, and was succeeded by his surviving son, Julian Edward Alfred.
The fourth generation
Julian Edward Alfred Mond
, third Baron Melchett (19251973), industrialist
, the son of Henry Ludwig Mond, was born in London on 9 January 1925. He was educated at Eton College and, although ready to go to Oxford, chose instead to go straight into the Fleet Air Arm in 1942, first in the lower deck and then commissioned, becoming senior pilot in his squadron. After training in Canada and South Africa he served in the Atlantic and on the Russian convoys. During his time in the Fleet Air Arm he took a correspondence course in farming which prepared him for what he was long to consider his most important activity. He founded a farming company (British Field Products Ltd) which specialized in grass-drying and animal feed-stuffs. On 26 April 1947 he married Sonia Elizabeth, daughter of Lieutenant-Colonel R. H. Graham, Royal Army Medical Corps. They had one son and two daughters. He and his wife lived between a mews house in London and a farm, Courtyard, Ringstead, Hunstanton, in Norfolk.
In 1947 Julian Mond joined the merchant bankers M. Samuel & Co. and by 1960 had become a significant influence in the financial world. He was an adviser to the export credits guarantee department and the British Transport Docks Board, and was on the council of administration of the Malta Dockyard. He became a director of the Guardian Assurance Company and of the Anglo-American Shipping Co. Ltd. In 1965 M. Samuel & Co. merged with Philip Hill, Higginson, and Erlanger Ltd, and Melchett (he had inherited the title in 1949) became director in charge of the banking and overseas departments. It was not an entirely easy life because tensions developed from time to time between the two components of the merged company. In his early forties he had thus acquired over a dozen directorships and was on the council of the Confederation of British Industry and the National Economic Development Council.
British Field Products expanded in size and variety and Melchett persuaded Guardian Assurance to become a major shareholder. In 1964 the company acquired Weasenham Farm, with more than 14,000 acres of Norfolk farmland. During the same period he was a member of the British Transport Docks Board, which gave him a valuable insight into the operation of a nationalized industry. This extra work was to a great extent a relaxation. He made certain of being able to get home to the Norfolk countryside by flying there in his own single-engined plane after office hours. He rode and sailed and in the summer took family holidays in Majorca where he had built a villa.
In April 1966 his career took a new turn. The prime minister, Harold Wilson, asked Melchett to be chairman of the committee to plan the nationalization of the British steel industry. He took this on in spite of misgivings about government intervention in the conduct of the affairs of any new industrial organization. From 1967 until his death he was chairman of what was eventually called the British Steel Corporation. The task was enormous: the bringing together of fourteen major iron and steel companies and other smaller ones employing more than a quarter of a million workers with a variety of traditions, methods, and loyalties. Among many innovations which helped harmonious progress was his introduction of worker-directorshipsmembers of trade unions being appointed to boards.
Melchett's leadership survived the change of government in June 1970. The new prime minister, Edward Heath, and his cabinet accepted Melchett's plans for a massive modernization and its funding. By 1973 he had clearly established himself as an international influence in this leading industry, and was even being proposed for election as the next president of the International Iron and Steel Institute. He was much respected for his hard work and for his open manner. It was clear that the load needed to be eased and he was supported by the appointment as chief executive and deputy chairman of Dr H. M. Finniston. However, some of his colleagues on the board of British Steel differed from him and looked to an eventual return to separation of functions and to private ownership. Melchett had accepted appointment as non-executive director of Orion Bank in 1972, and his future seemed to be undecided. In 1973 he went on holiday to the villa in Majorca, where he died of a heart attack in June 1973. He was buried in the family mausoleum at Finchley. A memorial service was held in Westminster Abbey. He was succeeded by his son, Peter Robert Mond.
The family's influence
Four generations of the Mond family, German in origin, but British by choice and further descent, played a powerful role in the development of the chemical and metallurgical industries of the United Kingdom and of other countries. Ludwig Mond saw the possibilities of exploiting the advances in alkali manufacture made possible by contemporary discovery. His appreciation of the markets led him to make his home in England. One son advanced Ludwig Mond's scientific discoveries and applied them to industry, but devoted much of his energy in later life to historical scholarship. His other son, who entered parliament, became a minister, and was raised to the peerage, led in the creation of a great international industry (Imperial Chemical Industries). A grandson showed a family gift for high finance and politics, a gift exhibited so fully by a great-grandson that he was invited to head the establishment of the first great nationalized industry (the British Steel Corporation). Thus over four generations, science, as the backbone of industry, played its part in the forefront of Mond family life, first in the expansion of manufacture and then as the basis for enterprise in the worlds of finance and politics, a clear example of one of the main trends in twentieth-century history. On his deathbed Ludwig said he hoped Henry would make himself necessary. Alfred adapted these words for the motto in the Melchett coat of arms: Make yourself necessary. The four generations of Monds described here did just that.
J. M. Cohen, The life of Ludwig Mond (1956) · H. Bolitho, Alfred Mond, first Lord Melchett (1933) · J. Goodman, The Mond legacy: a family saga (1982) · T. E. Thorpe, Nature, 82 (190910), 2213 [Ludwig Mond] · The Times (13 Dec 1909) [Ludwig Mond] · The Times (29 Oct 1930) [Alfred Moritz Mond] · The Times (18 March 1938) [Sir Robert Ludwig Mond] · F. G. Donnan, JCS (1931), 33749 [Alfred Moritz Mond] · J. F. Thorpe, JCS (1939), 21519 [Sir Robert Ludwig Mond] · archives, Royal Institution of Great Britain, London · J. F. Thorpe, Sir Robert Mond, Obits. FRS, 2 (19368), 62732 · W. J. Reader, Imperial Chemical Industries, a history, 1 (1970) · D. W. F. Hardie, A history of chemical industry in Widnes (1950) · D. W. F. Hardie, The chemical industry on Merseyside (1961) · H. E. Armstrong, The Monds and the chemical industry, Nature, 127 (1931), 23840 · d. cert. [Ludwig Mond] · CGPLA Eng. & Wales (1938) [Sir Robert Ludwig Mond] · b. cert. [Sir Robert Ludwig Mond] · m. cert. [Sir Robert Ludwig Mond and Helen Edith Levis] · m. cert. [Sir Robert Ludwig Mond and Marie Louise Guggenheim] · d. cert. [Sir Robert Ludwig Mond] · m. cert. [Alfred Moritz Mond] · d. cert. [Alfred Moritz Mond] · m. cert. [Henry Ludwig Mond] · d. cert. [Henry Ludwig Mond] · CGPLA Eng. & Wales (1949) [Henry Ludwig Mond] · b. cert. [Julian Edward Alfred Mond] · m. cert. [Julian Edward Alfred Mond] · CGPLA Eng. & Wales (1973) [Julian Edward Alfred Mond]
Ches. & Chester ALSS, corresp. and papers; personal papers [Ludwig Mond]
Egypt Exploration Society, London, corresp. of him and his wife with Egypt Exploration Society [Robert Mond]
Imperial Chemical Industries Archive
NRA, family papers
NRA, corresp. and papers [Alfred Mond]
Royal Institution of Great Britain, London, archives
U. Oxf., Griffith Institute, archaeological papers, incl. notes on Theban tombs, notebook and notes, photographs [Robert Mond] | BL OIOC, letters to Lord Reading, MSS Eur. E. 238, F 118 [Alfred Mond]
Bodl. Oxf., corresp. with J. L. Myres [Robert Mond]
Bodl. Oxf., corresp. with Viscount Addison [Alfred Mond]
Nuffield Oxf., corresp. with Lord Cherwell [Henry Mond]
Parl. Arch., corresp. with Lord Beaverbrook [Henry Mond]
Parl. Arch., corresp. with Lord Beaverbrook [Alfred Mond]
Parl. Arch., corresp. with David Lloyd George [Alfred Mond]
U. Birm. L., corresp. with Austen Chamberlain [Alfred Mond]
U. Oxf., Griffith Institute, letters to Sir A. H. Gardiner [Robert Mond]
E. Lanteri, bronze statuette, 1912 (Robert Ludwig Mond), NPG · W. Stoneman, photograph, 1917 (Alfred Moritz Mond), NPG · F. O. Salisbury, oils, c.1920 (Robert Ludwig Mond), Westminster Hospital, London · Quiz [P. Evans], pen-and-ink caricature, 1926 (Alfred Moritz Mond), NPG · E. Kapp, drawing, 1929 (Alfred Moritz Mond), Barber Institute of Fine Arts, Birmingham · W. Rothenstein, drawing, 1929 (Alfred Moritz Mond), NPG · A. Wysard, double portrait, watercolour drawing, 1929 (Henry Ludwig Mond with his wife, Gwen), NPG · W. Stoneman, photograph, 1938 (Robert Ludwig Mond), NPG · R. von Marientreu, oils, c.1955 (Alfred Moritz Mond, 1929; after J. Lavey), Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd, London · B. Partridge, pen-and-ink and watercolour caricature (Alfred Moritz Mond), NPG; repro. in Punch Almanack (1 Nov 1926) · group portrait, half-tone reproductions of photographic originals (with Löwenthal family), repro. in Cohen, Life of Ludwig, 48
Wealth at death
£1,000,000Ludwig Mond: probate, 1910, CGPLA Eng. & Wales · £381,958 17s. 9d.Sir Robert Ludwig Mond: resworn probate, 1938, CGPLA Eng. & Wales · £96,968 0s. 2d.Henry Ludwig Mond: probate, 1949, CGPLA Eng. & Wales · £310,500Julian Edward Alfred Mond: probate, 27 Sept 1973, CGPLA Eng. & Wales