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  John Wodehouse (1826–1902), by Camille Silvy, 1861 John Wodehouse (1826–1902), by Camille Silvy, 1861
Wodehouse, John, first earl of Kimberley (1826–1902), politician, was born on 7 January 1826 in Baker Street, London, the first of four children of Henry Wodehouse (1799–1834), heir from 1819 to the Kimberley estate in Norfolk, and his wife, Anne, only daughter of Theophilus Thornhagh Gurdon of Letton, Norfolk. Between November 1833 and February 1835 four members of his family died, including a twin sister, a younger sister, his father, and his paternal great-grandfather. By the age of ten John Wodehouse was noticeably self-contained, stoically coping with his losses.

Education, title, marriage, and political beliefs

After her husband's death, Anne Wodehouse devoted herself to the education of her sons, which included lessons in French and early trips to the cultural centres of Europe. In 1835 Wodehouse was sent to Lyndon, Rutland, where he studied under the Revd Thomas Kirchever Arnold, an accomplished scholar who was often ill, irritable, and severe. Wodehouse nevertheless credited him with extirpating a ‘vile habit of falsehood’ and compelling accuracy in lessons (journal, Kimberley MSS, Bodl. Oxf). In 1838 Wodehouse went to Eton College, where he distinguished himself by being sent up for good work more than twenty times, earned the reputation as a clever and well-mannered boy, and honed his powers of debate in the Eton Society (Pop). He nevertheless disliked the imperatives of collective society and came to hate life at Eton. After passing a ‘very good’ examination, he spent several months on the continent with the Revd Constantine Frere, preparing for Christ Church, Oxford.

Wodehouse arrived in Oxford in 1843, healthy, well travelled, well read in the classics, and fluent in French. Athletically built, just under 6 feet tall and weighing some 13 stone, he excelled in strenuous pursuits: he rode regularly with the Bicester pack, shot, stalked, and played tennis. His unusual success in combining scholarship and sport may be attributed to a combination of innate intelligence, discipline, ambition, and a strong sense of responsibility to family, county, and country. A self-avowed liberal leaning toward philosophic radicalism, he was dismayed at the inadequate instruction at Oxford, and read privately with the philosopher Henry Longueville Mansel in preparation for his examinations. In 1847 he took a first in classics, reputedly one of the best in years.

Wodehouse succeeded his grandfather as third Baron Wodehouse on 29 May 1846, and inherited almost 10,000 acres in Norfolk and several hundred in Cornwall, including virtually the whole of Falmouth parish. Disappointed at missing his chance in the House of Commons, he did not immediately embrace politics, but instead completed his university degree, read privately, and began the restoration of his estate, which he had inherited with encumbrances of more than £140,000. With the assistance of his uncle, the city banker , he leased and sold land in and around Falmouth as the arrival of the railway spurred development, and by 1864 had paid all creditors.

Kimberley married, on 16 August 1847, Lady Florence Fitzgibbon (1825–1895), of Dublin, eldest daughter of Richard Fitzgibbon, third and last earl of Clare. They had three sons and two daughters. Kimberley's successor, John (1848–1932), was a Liberal Party organizer in Norfolk, who joined the Labour Party after the First World War; Alice (1850–1937) married Hussey Packe of Prestwold, Loughborough; Constance (1852–1923) remained single and lived at Kimberley; Alfred (1856–1858) died in infancy while in Russia; Armine (1860–1901) served as his father's private secretary (1880–95) and as member of parliament for the Saffron Walden division of Essex from 1900. The marriage appeared to some as less than ideal. However, Kimberley expressed both publicly and privately, throughout their 47-year marriage, complete devotion and a deep emotional attachment to his wife. Similarly, his heir and his unmarried daughter sometimes appeared to give more trouble than comfort to their father. Relatively unconcerned with appearances, he had encouraged individuality in his children, and members of the Wodehouse family remained exceedingly close to one another. All the children were present at their father's death.

From his days at Eton, Kimberley considered himself a pragmatic, undoctrinaire liberal, with a pronounced interest in fiscal responsibility and limited central government. The origins of his political philosophy were mixed, with Burke's appeal to judgement according to circumstances serving throughout his career as a touchstone. His ancestors had been tory since the seventeenth century, and his wife's great-grandfather was the arch-tory John Fitzgibbon, first earl of Clare and prime mover of the Irish Act of Union (1800). During the 1840s his grandfather had followed Peel, foreshadowing Kimberley's lifelong commitment to free trade. His principal political mentor, Raikes Currie, was a reform-minded City banker who had married into the gentry and served as Liberal MP for Northampton (1837–57). Many of Kimberley's earliest political associations, however, were with radicals.

Early political career

Recognizing the inadequacy of his classical education for a career in government, between 1848 and 1852 Kimberley systematically studied history, law, philosophy, and political economy, while Raikes Currie promoted his career in London. In 1851 he was elected to the Political Economy Club, and he regularly attended their meetings throughout the 1850s and 1860s. Kimberley's first political cause was the promotion of self-government in the settlement colonies. From the late 1840s he was a contributing member of the Canterbury Association, and served with Joseph Hume on the finance committee of the short-lived Society for the Reform of Colonial Government. There he worked closely with Francis Baring, C. B. Adderley, Richard Cobden, J. A. Roebuck, and Sir William Molesworth, the last of whom he considered to be his most valuable acquaintance. He delivered a maiden speech of ‘great promise’ on 12 April 1850, opposing the imposition of convicts on the Australian colonies (Currie, 1.355). Diffident about the leadership of Lord Grey and Lord John Russell, he waited until 1852 before ‘throwing himself into the Whig ranks’ (ibid., 1.501). With the formation of Aberdeen's ministry in December of that year, Kimberley was surprised to be appointed under-secretary of state for foreign affairs, having little studied the subject; he had wished for the vice-presidency of the Board of Trade.

One of the few members of the House of Lords who were both young and active, Kimberley was committed to public service, and established in the 1850s a regular pattern of participation in government, high and low, that would last throughout his life. He was active in county affairs, and often served as chairman of the quarter sessions, as trustee to various school and parish boards, and on many local committees. A member of the Church of England, a believer, and a regular church attender when in the country, he nevertheless spoke little about religion, thus causing some to question his faith. Strongly anti-Catholic, he was active in the anti-papal agitation of 1850–51, though he came to regret this on Liberal political grounds. He served as high steward of Norwich Cathedral (1867–1902). At the instance of the local gentry, from the mid-1850s he played a leading role in reviving Liberal fortunes in east Norfolk, culminating, in 1857, in the election of a Liberal for the first time since 1832.

Lord Clarendon, the foreign secretary, appreciated Kimberley's discretion, hard work, and quick perception at the Foreign Office, and offered him the delicate position of minister-plenipotentiary to St Petersburg (4 May 1856–31 March 1858) after the Crimean War. Thoroughly English in temperament, Kimberley was Clarendon's model diplomat for the circumstance, able to meet Russian hauteur and cosmopolitan guile with tact, imperturbability, and resolution. After resigning in the wake of the Conservative victory of February 1858, he was reappointed as under-secretary to the Foreign Office with Palmerston's election in June 1859. With Lord John Russell's elevation to the peerage in July 1861, Kimberley resigned, refusing to serve subordinately to a minister in the same house. Palmerston unsuccessfully tried to arrange a transfer to the India Office, and during the following seventeen months offered governorships of Bombay and Canada, which Kimberley refused, preferring to take his chance in the ‘sea of home politics’. In December 1863 he was entrusted with the forlorn mission of negotiating a peaceful resolution to the Schleswig-Holstein crisis. After a brief tenure as under-secretary at the India Office (25 April–1 November 1864), he was appointed lord lieutenant of Ireland in succession to Lord Carlisle, a position that ambition rather than inclination obliged him to accept. Although personally desiring the abolition of the office, he determined to administer affairs vigorously, and promoted public grants and loans for land drainage, reform of the universities, and disestablishment of the Irish church. He staunchly opposed home rule, however, and his tenure as viceroy was principally remembered for the timely suppression of an imminent Fenian uprising in September 1865, which earned him the earldom of Kimberley (1 June 1866).

Colonial secretary

Following the Liberal victory of December 1868, Gladstone brought Kimberley into the cabinet as lord privy seal, principally to further Irish legislation. With Lord Clarendon's death and Granville's transfer to the Foreign Office in July 1870, Kimberley took up the seals of the Colonial Office, where he continued Granville's policy of troop withdrawal from the settlement colonies, approved the annexation of the Griqualand West diamond fields which later took his name, and granted full responsible government to Cape Colony. In the tropical colonies, he rejected Cardwell's policy of retrenchment, laying the groundwork for the annexation of Fiji (1874) and the extension of British influence in Malaya and the Gold Coast.

During Gladstone's first ministry, Kimberley was beset with personal problems, including the extended and serious illness of his youngest son and the bankruptcy of his heir. These and heavy work at the Colonial Office made welcome the rest afforded by the Liberal defeat of February 1874, and cooled the earlier ardour of his ambition. During Disraeli's ministry he was active in opposition: he spoke against the Royal Titles Bill and the ‘thorough’ pro-Turkish policy of the government, but supported the acquisition of the Suez Canal shares as valuable to the defence of India. When parliament was out of session, he devoted much of his time to family and estate affairs, including the dedication of the carefully landscaped 7½ acre Kimberley Park in the heart of Falmouth, his gift to the city and the centrepiece of plans for further property development. He took Gladstone's retirement at face value, and warmly supported Hartington's leadership, but welcomed Gladstone's return in 1880.

Kimberley surprised Gladstone by refusing the Indian viceroyalty, but agreed to resume administration of the Colonial Office (28 April 1880–16 December 1882). The cabinet immediately determined to reverse Lord Lytton's forward policy in India, but to persevere with confederation in southern Africa, begun under Carnarvon in 1877. Boer opposition led to war (December 1880–March 1881), in which British troops attempting to seize the high ground of Majuba Hill were defeated (27 February 1881), while British peace overtures were being studied by the Transvaal government. Kimberley endured much criticism in the press, and the only threat during his career from within the cabinet, but stiffened by Gladstone he stood firm against renewal of hostilities when it was learned that Kruger, immediately upon receiving British offers (28 February 1881), had responded favourably. This pragmatic policy led to the convention of Pretoria (3 August 1881), which restored self-government to the Transvaal state under the ‘suzerainty’ of Britain. Domestically, Kimberley helped to shape the prevention of crime and Irish land bills.

At the India Office

With the fifteenth earl of Derby's entry into the cabinet, Kimberley accepted the seals of the India Office, which he held during Gladstone's final three administrations for a little more than four and a half years (16 December 1882–9 June 1885; 6 February–20 July 1886; 18 August 1892–2 March 1894). Throughout this time he impressed the long-time permanent under-secretary Arthur Godley as second only to Gladstone as an administrative official, and earned the general respect of both parties by conducting Indian business along non-partisan lines. Though he supported in principle Lord Ripon's potentially radical measures for local self-government and extension of judicial jurisdiction over Europeans to native judges, he modified ambitious details in the interest of sound administration, thereby proving that, despite campaign rhetoric, the Liberal Party had not been radicalized. Kimberley urged Ripon to retire early, in 1884, then pursued a more conservative social policy in conjunction with subsequent viceroys, Lord Dufferin (1884–8), and Lord Lansdowne (1888–94). The predominant foreign question facing India was Russian expansion in central Asia, which led to the brink of war with their occupation of Panjdeh on 30 March 1885, just 40 miles from the strategically important Afghan town of Herat. The cabinet followed Kimberley in agreeing that British troops should be committed in the event of further encroachments. By the time the Liberal government left office in June, Russia had accepted the principle of arbitration and the differences between the two governments had been narrowed to the disposition of Zulfikar Pass. Formal resolution of the issue came on 18 June 1886, in a settlement that defined over 300 miles of border between Russia and Afghanistan.

Ireland and other concerns

The press of colonial and Indian business after 1880 precluded Kimberley's daily involvement in Irish and domestic policy, but Gladstone continued to consult him as one who had successfully dealt with Irish problems, who understood the complexity of the issues, but who nevertheless remained thoroughly Liberal in his sympathies. From 1860 he had studied systematically the Irish nationalist movement and the political response to it in England, clipping thousands of press articles for reference, reading relevant books and pamphlets, and regularly communicating with his friend Lord Spencer, who served as Irish viceroy (1868–74; 1882–5). By the time Gladstone's intentions regarding home rule became known in December 1885, Kimberley was convinced that some transaction with the Irish nationalists was unavoidable, but he wished to force the Conservatives to declare their policy. From December he was much involved in discussions with Gladstone, Spencer, and Morley, which led to the drafting of a home-rule measure, and he remained a staunch supporter throughout his career, though opposing full Irish representation at Westminster as unjust to English and Scottish voters.

During the long Salisbury ministry (1886–92), Kimberley was politically active, speaking in the Lords on the widest variety of subjects, maintaining contact with Gladstone and Spencer regarding the Irish policy of a prospective Liberal government, and handling much of the Liberal business in the Lords before Granville's death in 1891. As Granville's successor, he was an efficient Liberal leader (1891–4, 1897–1902), well liked on both sides. After Gladstone's tumultuous third ministry he retreated to his muniment room to write his only publication, the privately printed The Wodehouses of Kimberley (1887). He played an active part in the affairs of the Norfolk county council, established by the Local Government Act (1888), and served on the council's first finance and joint committees. During 1889 Armine married Eleanor Arnold, daughter of Matthew Arnold. Also in that year, Florence's chronic rheumatism became more acute, leading Kimberley to decline Gladstone's invitation to speak more often out of parliament.

India again, and the Foreign Office

During Kimberley's third tenure at the India Office, the decline of the rupee was the most troublesome issue, leading to depression and a decline of capital investment. In an attempt to bolster the value of the currency, he adopted the recommendations of the Herschell committee (1893), including the controversial plan for closing mints to the coinage of silver, an early step in the drive toward establishing a gold exchange standard. Being especially hard pressed with Indian economic questions, Kimberley resolutely refused to countenance motions in the House of Commons that might have led to the reduction of opium revenues, at one point politely threatening to resign if Gladstone persisted in supporting such a motion. Within his own departments, Kimberley was virtually unassailable. Slow to act, careful to weigh all arguments, and thorough in preparation, he seldom wavered once a course was determined, and he was seldom challenged.

This pattern was somewhat modified when Kimberley succeeded Rosebery at the Foreign Office (11 March 1894–21 June 1895) upon Gladstone's resignation. Rosebery's administration of foreign affairs in 1886 and between 1892 and 1894 had been widely admired for treating international affairs as an arena distinct from politics to the advantage of the country, a view with which Kimberley heartily agreed. In addition, Rosebery was widely perceived as the natural party leader because of his influence in the country. For the first time since 1880, Kimberley entered administrative office without having the presumptive last word. As a result, he was inclined, during the first months in office, to seek Rosebery's advice and to rely upon it. This seemed to matter little, as they had worked cordially together during Gladstone's second and third ministries and were both committed to a broadly consolidationist policy, hoping to improve relations with Germany, France, and Russia without entangling the country through alliances. However, Kimberley came to mistrust Rosebery's penchant for secrecy and communicated more freely with the cabinet than Rosebery would have wished.

Kimberley's first major act as foreign secretary was to conclude the controversial Anglo-Belgian treaty of 12 April 1894, largely negotiated under Rosebery's direction in 1893 and early 1894, by which Britain leased a strip of Congolese territory bordering German East Africa. German and French protests led to the withdrawal of that portion of the treaty, and much of Kimberley's energy at the Foreign Office thereafter was directed toward improving strained relations with Germany. Talks with German and French representatives smoothed immediate difficulties but proved inconclusive in settling broader international tensions. He agreed to allow German recruitment of labourers at Singapore and discussed a potential future division of the Portuguese empire in east Africa, but adamantly opposed their overtures to the Transvaal and resisted attempts to embroil Britain in Franco-Italian disputes in east Africa. After some early success in bringing Russia and France into a plan for jointly enforcing reforms on the Ottoman empire following the Armenian massacres of 1894, in May 1895 Russia and France stopped short of joining Britain in the proposed coercive measures. During April 1895 Kimberley declined to join Russia, Germany, and France in forcing Japan to moderate its settlement of the Sino-Japanese War.

As a result of Kimberley's administration of foreign affairs, Britain maintained her diplomatic freedom on generally good terms with the other powers, though major outstanding international questions remained unresolved. He was responsible for maintaining Britain's traditional policy of isolation, while laying the foundation for Anglo-Japanese co-operation, having overseen the negotiation of a new commercial treaty in which British extraterritoriality was renounced (1894), and having refused to join the powers in coercing Japan's revision of the treaty of Shimoneseki. On the whole, Kimberley and Rosebery were inelegantly successful in protecting British interests, though the fall of the government on 21 June 1895 makes it difficult to assess the long-term effectiveness of their policies.

‘Uncle Kim’

From 1895 Kimberley played the role of elder statesman, ‘Uncle Kim’ to the younger generation of Liberals. He had since Gladstone's resignation mediated various disputes as the Liberal Party sought to establish a new identity. During Rosebery's administration he served as a regular channel of communication between Harcourt and Rosebery, combating the impulsiveness of the former and the sensitivity of the latter. By 1898, with both Rosebery and Harcourt having resigned leadership positions in their respective houses, Kimberley led the small Liberal band in the House of Lords, where he worked closely with Campbell-Bannerman to repair the fortunes of the Liberal Party. Kimberley consistently occupied the narrow middle ground between Campbell-Bannerman and the Gladstonians, who generally sought to maintain Liberal orthodoxy, and Liberal Imperialists such as Rosebery, Edward Grey, Richard Haldane, and H. H. Asquith, who favoured substantial party reform. Though a thorough Gladstonian in his commitment to Irish home rule, free trade, and individualism, Kimberley consistently backed the Conservative government during the South African War; although he criticized the government's lack of foresight, he supported the fundamental principle that the Boers must be militarily subdued before negotiations could begin. His stolid conservatism on this point, in conjunction with staunch support for Liberal domestic measures, minimized the negative impact of ‘pro-Boer’ activity within the party, and provided a patriotic shield as Liberals began to reorganize under Campbell-Bannerman. Though he had neither the temperament nor the skill for rousing Liberal enthusiasm among a mass electorate, he was regularly consulted by MPs for advice and information on imperial and foreign issues.

Assessment and death

Kimberley's role in the Liberal Party was principally that of a consummate administrator. Because he never skimped his work, he seldom made mistakes and was relied upon implicitly by members of the cabinet to handle departmental business. He had, however, in unique conjunction, a variety of political skills. In the 1850s and 1860s, he was widely praised as a gifted debater who could hold his own in the coolly intellectual atmosphere of the Lords. He was less effective as the democratic element in British politics grew, though even at the end of his life he was sought in certain situations by party strategists as a safe speaker, whose clarity, administrative record, and long association with Palmerston, Russell, and Gladstone would compensate for a lack of charisma. His effectiveness as a speaker was enhanced by a wide knowledge of the intricacies of contemporary politics, based upon reading, personal acquaintance, and frequent attendance in the House of Commons. A long record of public service and the absence of any hint of self-serving made him an ideal shield during international embarrassments such as the British defeat at Majuba Hill in 1881 and the death of Gordon at Khartoum in 1885.

Having never served in the House of Commons and having no strong political connections, Kimberley owed much to Gladstone. From the formation of the Palmerston ministry in June 1859, he was a strong advocate of Gladstone's fiscal policy, and always admired his parliamentary genius and reforming zeal. After supporting home rule in 1886, the belief that Kimberley was essentially a ‘loyal lieutenant’ became firmly embedded in the public mind. It was not generally known that he had frequently disagreed with Gladstone's policies and often dissented from his method. In departmental matters, Kimberley's patience, careful study, and mastery of detail often tempered Gladstone's zeal. In 1872–3, for instance, Gladstone reluctantly acquiesced in allowing Australian differential tariffs, and twenty years later he argued in the House of Commons, at Kimberley's insistence, against a motion he had wished to support in condemning the opium trade as ‘morally indefensible’ (Russell, 194–7).

Matters of general policy he was content to leave to Gladstone, who frequently sought Kimberley's advice on Irish, imperial, and foreign questions. He was one of the few Liberal members who contributed regularly to discussions on the entire scope of Liberal legislation and policy. His legendary reputation as a garrulous monologist was offset by a self-effacing humility and a gift for concise and lucid written exposition of complex issues. As a result, he made real contributions to the drafting of legislation and the refinement of Liberal policy without offering initiatives. His greatest achievement associated with a specific piece of legislation was in piloting the Parish Councils Bill through the House of Lords in January 1894.

Throughout his life Kimberley promoted the broadening of educational opportunities as the best means of strengthening the growing democracy: he often spoke to a variety of improving organizations and served as trustee to a number of Norfolk schools, on the senate of the University of London (1859–1902), as president of the council of University College, London (1879–87), and as chancellor of the University of London (1899–1902). He was a good businessman, liberal in the improvement of cottages and farmland in Norfolk, and quick to take advantage of urban development in Falmouth. When in London, Kimberley resided from 1853 to 1874 at 48 Bryanston Square and from 1874 at 35 Lowndes Square, where he died of heart failure on 8 April 1902. He is buried in the Kimberley vault, St Peter's Church, Kimberley.

John Powell

Sources  

J. Powell, Liberal by principle: the politics of John Wodehouse, first earl of Kimberley, 1843–1902 (1996) · The journal of John Wodehouse, first earl of Kimberley, for 1862–1902, ed. A. Hawkins and J. Powell, CS, 5th ser., 9 (1997) · P. Kennedy and J. Powell, ‘Lord Kimberley and the foundation of liberal Irish policy: annotations to George Sigerson's Modern Ireland: its vital questions, secret societies and government (1868)’, Irish Historical Studies, 31 (1998–9), 91–114 · B. W. Currie, Recollections, letters and journals, 2 vols. (1901) · G. W. E. Russell, Half-lengths (1913) · Gladstone, Diaries · D. M. Schreuder, Gladstone and Kruger (1969) · W. D. McIntyre, The imperial frontier in the tropics, 1865–1875 (1967) · A. P. Kaminsky, The India Office, 1880–1910 (1986) · G. Martel, Imperial diplomacy (1986) · John, first earl of Kimberley, ‘A journal of events during the Gladstone ministry, 1864–74’, ed. E. Drus, Camden miscellany, XXI, CS, 3rd ser., 90 (1958) · R. L. Greaves, Persia and the defence of India (1959) · journal, Bodl. Oxf., MSS Kimberley · GEC, Peerage · d. cert.

Archives  

BL, corresp. relating to Russia · Bodl. Oxf., corresp. and papers · Leics. RO, letters received · NL Scot., corresp. and extract from diary · Norfolk RO, personal and family corresp. and papers · TCD, corresp. relating to Ireland |  Balliol Oxf., letters to Sir Louis Mallet · BL, corresp. with Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, Add. MSS 41206–41232 · BL, corresp. with Sir Charles Dilke, Add. MS 43891 · BL, corresp. with W. E. Gladstone, Add. MSS 44224–44229 · BL, Godley MSS · BL, corresp. with Lord Ripon, Add. MSS 43522–43527 · BL, Spencer MSS · BL, letters to Lord Strathnairn, Add. MS 42808 · BL OIOC, letters to Sir Owen Burne · BL OIOC, letters to Sir James Fergusson, MSS Eur. E 214 · BL OIOC, letters to Arthur Godey, MSS Eur. F 102 · BL OIOC, letters to Sir Mountstuart Grant-Duff, MSS Eur. F 234 · BL OIOC, corresp. with Lord Malmesbury, MSS Eur. E 256 · BL OIOC, letters to Lord Wenlock, MSS Eur. D 592 · Bodl. Oxf., letters to Lord Clarendon · Bodl. Oxf., corresp. with Sir William Harcourt · Bodl. RH, letters to Sir John Pope-Hennessey · Borth. Inst., letters to Lord Halifax · CBS, letters to duke of Somerset · CUL, corresp. with Sir John Glover · Glos. RO, letters to Sir Michael Hicks Beach · Hants. RO, letters to Lord Malmesbury · LPL, corresp. with A. C. Tait · Natal Archives Depot, corresp. with Sir H. E. Wood · NL Scot., corresp. with Lord Rosebery · NRA, priv. coll., letters to Lord Hammond · PRONI, letters to Lord Belmore · PRONI, corresp. with Lord Dufferin · TNA: PRO, corresp. with Sir Evelyn Boving · TNA: PRO, corresp. with Lord Cardwell, PRO 30/48 · TNA: PRO, corresp. with Lord Granville, PRO 30/29 · TNA: PRO, letters to Lord Hammond, FO 391 · TNA: PRO, corresp. with Sir Edward Malet, FO 343 · TNA: PRO, corresp. with Lord John Russell, PRO 30/22 · U. Birm., letters to Norris and Sons, solicitors · U. Southampton L., corresp. with Lord Palmerston


Likenesses  

C. Silvy, photograph, 1861, NPG [see illus.] · S. C. Smith, oils, exh. 1866, Dublin Castle · W. H. Thornycroft, marble bust, 1907, Palace of Westminster, London · Ape [C. Pellegrini], caricature, chromolithograph, NPG; repro. in VF (16 July 1869) · T. Cranfield, carte-de-visite, NPG · W. Holl, stipple (after portrait by G. Richmond, 1862), BM, NPG · D. J. Pound, stipple and line engraving (after photograph by S. Watkins), NPG · J. Watkins, carte-de-visite, NPG · carte-de-visite, NPG · wood-engraving (after photograph), NPG; repro. in ILN (13 May 1865)

Wealth at death  

£253,313 12s. 6d.: probate, 22 July 1902, CGPLA Eng. & Wales