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Rutherford [Rutherfurd], Andrew, earl of Teviot (d. 1664), army officer, was the fifth and youngest son of William Rutherfurd (d. 1624) of Wrightslands and of Easter and Wester Quarrelholes in the barony of Restalrig, near Edinburgh, merchant burgess of Edinburgh, who came of a cadet branch of the Rutherfords of Hunthill, and his wife, Isobel, daughter of James Stewart of Traquair.

Rutherford attended the University of Edinburgh, but early on chose a military career, taking advantage of the network of Scots already in French service to enter the regiment of the gardes ecossaises, newly founded in 1642 under the colonelcy of James Campbell, earl of Irvine. Rutherford distinguished himself at the siege of Thionville in 1643 and the battle of Lens in 1648. He remained loyal to the French crown during the civil wars of the Fronde, and served for much of the 1650s under the command of Maréchal Turenne. In consequence he was in regular contact with James, duke of York, who also served in the army corps commanded by Turenne until the Stuarts shifted their alliance to the king of Spain in 1656.

Following the death of Campbell, and largely thanks to the strong support of Jacques d'Etampes, marquis de La Ferté-Imbault, colonel général des Ecossais, Rutherford succeeded to the colonelcy, in which capacity he served until the Franco-Spanish treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659. He was described by Samuel Pepys as
the boldest adventurer of his person in the world, and from a mean man in few years was come to this greatness … only by the death of all his officers, he many times having the luck of being the only survivor of them all, by venturing upon service for the king of France that nobody else would. (Pepys, 5.170)
Contrary to some accounts, Rutherford never rose beyond the rank of colonel in French service, and was certainly not promoted to the prestigious rank of lieutenant général.

Although the regiment of gardes ecossaises was not officially disbanded until 1662, it was subjected to a substantial réformation of its effective strength after the treaty of the Pyrenees, and Rutherford returned to Scotland in 1660. Despite his association with the Franco-Cromwellian military alliance, he seems to have had little difficulty in attracting the favour of the Restoration regime. On 10 January 1661 he was created Lord Rutherford with the right to nominate whomsoever he saw fit as his successor, a right that was especially significant in that, though Rutherford had married Susanna de Melville (who eventually survived him) in France in 1651, the marriage had produced no children. In March 1661 Charles II selected Rutherford to succeed Sir William Lockhart as governor of Dunkirk. Dunkirk was sold to Louis XIV in 1662, and in April 1663 Rutherford was transferred to Tangier as governor and in succession to Vice-Admiral Henry Mordaunt, earl of Peterborough. Pepys was hostile to the appointment, citing Rutherford's Catholicism when ‘all the rest of the officers almost are such already’, and suggesting that he was only appointed ‘to prevent the Irish having too great and the whole command there’ (Pepys, 3.282–3, 4.116). Prior to this appointment, in February 1663, Rutherford had been created earl of Teviot, though with succession limited to heirs male of his body.

Teviot's governorship of Tangier was marked by efforts to improve the fortifications, and a series of skirmishes against the surrounding Moorish populations. Pepys considered him ‘cunning’ and extremely adept at serving his own financial interests in supplying both the garrisons at Dunkirk and Tangier (Pepys, 5.275–6). On 4 May 1664 Rutherford, some four hundred soldiers, and most of his garrison officers were killed in a Moorish ambush about a mile and a half outside the town. His successor as governor, John, Baron Belasyse, was one of the five Catholic peers to be impeached during the Popish Plot. Lacking a male heir, the earldom of Teviot became extinct with Rutherford's death, but he had already made provision by his will in December 1663 for the transfer of his estates and other titles to Thomas Rutherford of Hunthill, who was created Lord Rutherford on 16 December 1665.

David Parrott


M. Pinard, Chronologie historique militaire, 7 vols. (Paris, 1760–64) · G. Daniel, Histoire de la milice françoise, 2 vols. (Paris, 1721) · L. Susane, Histoire de l'ancienne infanterie française, 8 vols. (Paris, 1849–53) · F. Michel, Les Ecossais en France, 2 vols. (1862) · A. M. Ramsay, Histoire du vicomte de Turenne, 2 vols. (The Hague, 1738) · L. Addison, A discourse of Tangier under the government of the earl of Teviot (1685) · Pepys, Diary, vols. 3–5, 8–9 · Scots peerage · GEC, Peerage · E. M. G. Routh, Tangier: England's lost Atlantic outpost, 1661–1684 (1912)


NL Scot., papers |  BL, letters to Lord Lauderdale, Add. MSS 23116–23121