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  Simon Patrick (1626–1707), by Sir Peter Lely, c.1668 Simon Patrick (1626–1707), by Sir Peter Lely, c.1668
Patrick, Simon [Symon] (1626–1707), bishop of Ely, was born on 8 September 1626 at Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, the eldest son of Henry Patrick (bap. 1596, d. 1665), a prosperous mercer and merchant, and his wife, Mary, the daughter of a Nottinghamshire minister named Naylor.

Early life and education, 1626–1655

The religious education provided by Patrick's parents combined practical protestant piety with the traditional Calvinist theology of the Church of England. Mary Patrick passed on the fruits of her own education by instructing her son with Lewis Bayly's Practice of Pietie (1611), while Henry Patrick, whose strict religious observance gained him a reputation for puritanism, was nevertheless an admirer of Robert Sanderson's sermons (1632). Henry was keen to foster Simon's scholarly ambitions and sent him to school under John Merryweather, the translator of Browne's Religio medici into Latin. At the outbreak of civil war in 1642 neutral Gainsborough was occupied by royalist troops. Patrick's schoolmaster fled and his father was forced to leave the town after refusing to take an oath. While the rest of the family took refuge at Sir William Pelham's house at Brocklesby, Simon went with his father to Boston and then to Hull, lodging with a family friend while he completed his education with a schoolmaster in Hull and possibly also at a school in Beverley.

Patrick's progress to university at Cambridge was now compromised by his father's dire financial straits (his goods at Brocklesby had been looted by parliamentarian troops) and the disorder caused by the war. At some risk to their personal safety, Henry and Simon travelled through Boston and King's Lynn in order to get to Cambridge. Patrick's father had letters of recommendation to Benjamin Whichcote and Ralph Cudworth, of Emmanuel College, where Henry hoped that they would accept Simon as a sizar. Although neither could take Patrick they recommended that they should try Queens' College, where he was duly admitted on 25 June 1644 in the care of John Wells. Patrick dutifully attempted to take the covenant but was excused when the authorities learned that he was just seventeen. Patrick soon improved on his position at Queens', acting as scribe to the master, Dr Herbert Palmer. He was rewarded with better scholarships and the status of pensioner. Patrick graduated BA on 21 January 1648 and was elected fellow of Queens' on 1 March 1649, proceeding MA on 18 January 1651. During his years at Queens' Patrick made the acquaintance of the Cambridge Platonist John Smith, an encounter that would shape his intellectual development. Smith confirmed Patrick in his doubts about absolute predestination and ‘made me take the liberty to read such authors (which were before forbidden me) as settled me in the belief that God would really have all men to be saved’ (Works, 9.419). Smith died in August 1652, and Patrick preached his funeral sermon (later printed by John Worthington before his edition of Smith's Select Discourses, 1662). Patrick served his college in the early 1650s as an administrator and a teacher. In 1653–4 he was senior bursar and in 1654–5 dean of chapel. He lectured in philosophy, arithmetic, and Hebrew, but took particular care to instruct his students in scripture. In his teaching he made use of Henry Hammond's Practical Catechism and this earned him a public reputation as an Arminian, a position which he now espoused as a self-evident truth. Patrick was obliged to take orders two years after his MA and submitted to presbyterian ordination on 8 April 1653 in London. However, he subsequently read Hammond's treatment of Ignatius's epistles and Herbert Thorndike's Primitive Government of the Church, and these works convinced him of the necessity of episcopal ordination. On 5 April 1654 Patrick was ordained by Bishop Joseph Hall at his house at Potter Heigham in Norfolk.

Parish priest and early writings, 1655–1672

In 1655, at the recommendation of Samuel Jacombe, a London minister and Patrick's former colleague at Queens', Patrick became chaplain to Sir Walter St John at Battersea. Patrick proceeded BD on 18 January 1658, six months after St John offered him the vacant vicarage of St Mary's, Battersea. Patrick was at first reluctant because he would have to undergo examination by presbyterian triers, but his inquisitors avoided any hard questions which might have disqualified him. Patrick held the vicarage at Battersea until 1675. Although at first overwhelmed by a punishing schedule, he grew to love his parochial work. It is from this period that his earliest printed work appears, most importantly his sacramental treatises Aqua genitalis (1659) and Mensa mystica (1660; for discussion of these see ‘Devotional writings and preaching’, below).

At the Restoration Patrick went to some trouble to prepare his parishioners for the return of Anglican forms of worship, convinced as he was of the necessity of a formal regime of prayer and public worship. On 29 April 1662 he heard of the death of the president of Queens' College and that the majority of the fellows wished to elect him. He set out for Cambridge but on 5 May discovered en route that although he had been formally elected, the ejected royalist nominee Anthony Sparrow had been installed on the king's mandamus. Patrick appealed to the court of king's bench, but to no avail. The case dragged on into the autumn term when it came before a commission which included the lord chancellor and the bishops of London, Winchester, and Ely, but nothing was resolved and the earl of Clarendon resorted to demanding that Patrick and his supporters drop the case or be noted as ‘a company of factious fellows’ (Works, 9.441). Patrick's legal adviser also mysteriously withdrew. Patrick pursued the issue until 1665, but with no result.

It may have been because of this shoddy treatment by the court that Patrick received an unexpected offer from the former parliamentarian William Russell, earl of Bedford. Thomas Manton, the presbyterian divine and rector of St Paul's, Covent Garden, had failed to conform in August 1662, leaving the rich benefice vacant and in the earl's gift. Patrick took up his new position on 23 September 1662 and held it until 1689, earning a reputation as an exemplary parish priest, not least because of his decision to stay with his parishioners during the plague of 1665. His correspondence with Lady Elizabeth Gauden dates from this period and provides a fascinating account of his experiences and thoughts during the plague. Patrick was diligent in improving the facilities offered by the church and later deployed the plentiful financial resources of his parish to endow additional services and lecturers—by the end of his tenure St Paul's was able to offer four services a day.

In April 1666 Patrick testified to the efficacy of Valentine Greatrakes, the famous ‘stroker’, after he was cured of illness by him. In June of the same year Patrick decided to take his DD, but at Oxford rather than Cambridge, probably as a result of his problems at Queens'. On the advice of his friend Dr Thomas Willis, he incorporated his BD into Christ Church on 27 June and was admitted DD on 5 July.

In 1668 Patrick, opposed to the schemes promoted by some of his latitudinarian colleagues for the comprehension of dissenters, produced the first of his popular Friendly Debate dialogues, denigrating nonconformist practices and calling upon dissenters to conform (see ‘Polemical writings’, below). He published the work anonymously but an appreciative archbishop of Canterbury discovered his identity, thus restoring Patrick to Sheldon's favours after the affair at Queens'. Offers of preferment soon followed. In 1669 the bishop of Lincoln offered Patrick the archdeaconry of Huntingdon, which he declined, typically ‘not thinking himself worthy of it’ (Works, 9.451). In 1671 he was made a royal chaplain ‘whether I would or no’ (ibid., 9.455) and on 13 July he received a prebend at Westminster, where he was installed four days later.

Dean of Peterborough and defender of Anglicanism, 1672–1689

In 1665 Patrick had met Penelope Jephson (1646–1725) briefly, but in 1666, having read Patrick's Parable of the Pilgrim (1664), she sought him out to advise her over an ill-considered vow of celibacy made in her younger years. Getting to know her better, Patrick fell in love with her and after his promotion to Westminster resolved to ask her to marry him. She rejected him initially, saying that she preferred to remain single. Their friendship continued until Penelope finally accepted his suit; they were married on 1 June 1675 at Miserden in Gloucestershire. They had three children, William (b. 1 July 1678), Simon (b. 2 Oct 1680), and Penelope (b. 1 Dec 1685), of whom only Simon survived infancy. Penelope outlived her husband: she died on 10 April 1725.

In 1674 Patrick became involved in measures designed to encourage religious teaching in Wales. These included the supply of bibles and religious literature in Welsh and led to Welsh-language editions of the Bible and the liturgy. In 1675 Patrick, now well established as a defender of Anglicanism, wrote a book (now lost) designed to persuade James, duke of York (later James II), to continue as an Anglican. 1679 saw Patrick publish his commentary on the book of Job, the first of his famous Old Testament commentaries, a major and lasting corpus of scholarship that he would continue to produce for the rest of his life.

Upon learning of the death of the dean of Peterborough, Patrick broke with habit and sought out patronage to secure the vacant deanery. He was successful, and was installed on 1 August 1679, holding the office together with the rectory of St Paul's. At Peterborough Patrick took the initiative in restoring the weekly communion. He also edited, extended, and published Simon Gunton's manuscript history of the church there, which was published in 1686. In 1680 the lord chancellor, Sir Heneage Finch, offered Patrick the rectory of St Martin-in-the-Fields, then reputed to be the best living in England, but Patrick was reluctant to leave his parishioners at St Paul's and was doubtful of his ability to carry out the work necessary. In his place he recommended his friend Thomas Tenison, who was appointed. An additional lecturer at St Paul's allowed Patrick to concentrate upon his biblical scholarship, but this soon gave way to works targeting the dangers of Roman Catholicism.

Patrick was one of the London clergymen who met soon after James II's accession to co-ordinate the production of anti-Catholic writings. James, who had retained Patrick as one of his royal chaplains, did not take kindly to reports of his sermons and in January 1686 complained to the archbishop of Canterbury, William Sancroft, about the London clergy who preached too much against popery, naming Patrick in particular. Patrick met James to emphasize that he remained loyal and a reconciliation was effected. However, in the autumn of the same year Patrick found himself in the front line of the controversy over James's religion when he and William Jane were summoned to participate in a debate with Catholic priests before the king. James wished his priests to convert the lord treasurer, the earl of Rochester, but the latter had insisted on hearing the Anglican cause defended. The king rejected Rochester's suggestions of John Tillotson and Edward Stillingfleet, but approved Patrick and Jane, then acting as the duty chaplains. On 29 November Patrick and Jane went to Whitehall to debate with Bonaventura Gifford and Thomas Godden. The conference dragged on into the night but eventually Rochester curtailed proceedings. The following day Rochester indicated that he remained convinced by Anglicanism, complimenting Patrick and Jane on their performance. James was apparently not so pleased, reportedly commenting that he ‘never saw a bad cause so well, or a good one so ill maintained’ (Works, 9.497n.). Patrick continued to campaign against popery from the pulpit, in print, and in more practical ways. In 1687, together with Tenison, he helped to establish a school adjoining St Martin's library, designed to confront the Catholic institution established at the Savoy. Patrick was the first to put his name to the resolution of the London clergy not to read the declaration of indulgence in May 1688.

Bishop of Chichester and of Ely, 1689–1707

In January 1689 Patrick was involved in Sancroft's proposed scheme for the comprehension of dissenters and was among those who drew up the proposals. The events of the 1680s had by then convinced Patrick that some form of accommodation with dissent was essential. In September 1689 he heard of the death of the bishop of Chichester, John Lake, and on 8 September, Patrick's birthday, he heard that the king and queen had elevated him to that see. Gilbert Burnet had recommended Patrick to the king as ‘a man of an eminently shining life, who would be a great ornament to the episcopal order’ (Correspondence of … Clarendon, 2.281). Patrick was confirmed as bishop of Chichester on 12 October and consecrated at Fulham the following day alongside Edward Stillingfleet and Gilbert Ironside.

From the beginning of October 1689 Patrick served on the ecclesiastical commission designed to revise the prayer book. At the end of November, regarded as something of an expert in the composition of prayers, he was instructed to revise the collects with a view to bringing them more into line with the epistles and the gospels. At the end of May 1690 Patrick settled in Chichester, beginning a visitation of the diocese. He stayed at Chichester for only a year. On 22 April 1691 he was translated to Ely to replace the nonjuror Francis Turner, being elected on 10 June and confirmed on 2 July. Patrick immediately got to work improving the material fortunes of the diocese, resolving a long-running dispute between the bishops of Ely and Lord Hatton's family over a contested lease, agreeing to a settlement which brought £100 per annum to the bishop and his successors in perpetuity. Acts of parliament in 1691 and 1698 restored and developed various rights for the bishopric. Patrick moved to Cambridgeshire in May 1692, reconstructing the bishop's palace at Ely and energetically pursuing pastoral and intellectual activities, particularly his growing series of Old Testament commentaries. He donated a large collection of valuable books to the cathedral library. At the same time he also played a role in establishing the Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge (SPCK). He not only acted as a trustee but established the charter of 1702 so that it constituted all bishops of Ely members of the society ex officio.

Patrick's change of heart over dissent led him in November 1702 to vote against the Occasional Conformity Bill. He is reported to have commented that although he had been known to write against dissent in his early years ‘he had lived long enough to see reason to alter his opinion of that people and that way of writing’ (Works, 9.554n.). In December 1702 Patrick purchased an estate at Dalham in Suffolk and began to rebuild the house there for his wife and family. He continued to exercise his many activities right up until the end of his life, in spite of growing infirmity. He composed his ‘Autobiography’ from the details of his now lost diaries in 1706 and continued to keep a diary until the last day of his life. Patrick died suddenly on 31 May 1707, aged eighty, at the bishop's palace, Ely. He was buried on 7 June on the north side of the presbytery of Ely Cathedral. A monument was soon erected, together with an epitaph by his successor, John Moore.

Works: the latitude-man

Patrick is best known as a latitudinarian and is often assumed to be the author of what might be considered to be a manifesto of latitudinarianism, A Brief Account of the New Sect of Latitude-Men (1662), published under the initials S. P. Unusually, Patrick does not claim the pamphlet in his ‘Autobiography’ (where he owns to several anonymous works), but textual and circumstantial evidence suggests that even if he did not write the Brief Account, the work refers to him and may be related to the controversy aroused by the contested presidency at Queens'. ‘Latitude-man’ was a term of abuse aimed by high-churchmen at divines like Patrick who had been educated and promoted during the civil war period. The Brief Account seeks to clear those so labelled from allegations of disloyalty and expedient conformity by laying out their beliefs, and in these can be seen a fair reflection of Patrick's own positions. Theologically the latitude-man is portrayed as a moderate, rationalist Anglican with a strong Arminian bias. Free will is celebrated, as is the universal intent of Christ's death and the sufficiency of God's grace. There is a greater emphasis upon holy living than the external features of ritualized religion. Scripture, reason, and the primitive apostolic tradition offer complementary routes to establishing true religion, which is embodied in the established church. The latitude-man approves ‘that vertuous mediocrity which our Church observes between the meretricious gaudiness of the Church of Rome, and the squalid sluttery of Fanatick conventicles’ (S.P., Brief Account, 7). The Brief Account is famous for its rejection of scholastic Aristotelianism and support for the new natural philosophy on the grounds that ‘True Philosophy can never hurt sound Divinity’ (ibid., 24).

Much of this is consistent with Patrick's ideas as expressed elsewhere in his writings. His confirmation in his Arminian beliefs has been noted and he consistently favoured the Greek fathers and early Christian writers along with modern authorities such as Episcopius, Grotius, and Hammond. The influence of John Smith's Platonism is clear in Patrick's rationalism, in his emphasis upon a living faith rather than abstract doctrine, and in his conviction that a properly cultivated spirituality could offer a form of mystical reunion with God. At the same time, however, revolted by enthusiasm, Patrick was strongly drawn to the practical order and discipline within the Anglican tradition. His understanding of this was shaped by his early education but amplified through his reading Henry Hammond and Jeremy Taylor, influences which would direct the shape of his subsequent work.

Devotional writings and preaching

In his lifetime Patrick was probably most famous for his devotional works, particularly those on the sacraments and his treatises concerning prayer. It was of course only fitting that he should have a particular interest in reconciling individual spirituality with an appropriate form of religiosity. After exploring sacramental issues in sermons, Smith's friend and editor John Worthington encouraged Patrick to publish extended treatments. The first of these was Aqua genitalis (1659) in which Patrick described baptism in terms of a federal rite acting as a seal upon the covenant between God and man in general. In his Mensa mystica of 1660 he extended his use of the covenant metaphor in the first of his extensive and popular series of writings on the eucharist which included A Book for Beginners (1662) and The Christian Sacrifice (1671). The eucharist took a central place in Patrick's theology, representing as it did the occasion for communicants not only to commemorate Christ's death but in doing so also to plead for God's grace. Patrick would remain a strong advocate of increasing the frequency of communion, and he encouraged the practice of a weekly eucharist at Peterborough and a monthly celebration at Ely.

Patrick's books of prayer were also phenomenally successful and his reputation in this area made him a natural choice to revise the collects in 1689. The Devout Christian Instructed how to Pray (1672), which had gone through nine editions by 1694, built upon the Book of Common Prayer in offering devotions for each day of the week. The Christian Sacrifice (fifteen editions by 1720) also provided suitable prayers and meditations for every month of the year and the principal religious ceremonies. Patrick's recurring concern is the proper focus of individual religious experience upon God as the source of all redemption. To that end, as he comments in The Devout Christian, Patrick avoids all ‘affected expressions, fantastical allusions, insignificant allegories, pretended wit, elegant conversions of sentences and rash applications of holy scripture’ (Patrick, Devout Christian, sig. A4r). He saw the directive form of prayer as essential, amplifying its spiritual effect. His recurrent concern was to foster spirituality, but in a directed and appropriate manner. In the words of one commentator, Patrick's devotions were ‘sublime and not enthusiastical’ (Knight, 132).

Known as the ‘preaching bishop’ (Overton, 250), Patrick earned a considerable reputation for his sermons during his lifetime and this figured prominently in Gilbert Burnet's recommendation that Patrick be elevated to Chichester. His earliest sermons bear the imprint of Smith's Platonism whereas his later style attracts adjectives from critics such as ‘grave’, ‘earnest’, ‘plain’, and ‘perspicuous’—as his Victorian editor Alexander Taylor puts it, ‘solid and serious rather than specious and brilliant’ (Works, 1.cxx). The stylistic effect was of course no accident but connected to Patrick's deep anxiety over the disturbing effects of uncontrolled rhetoric which he always associated with the antinomian excess and against which he had campaigned in the Friendly debate pamphlets (1668–70). Preferring instead to elevate the message over the messenger, Patrick made a particular point of defending Anglican plain preaching against nonconformist criticism in A Discourse of Profiting by Sermons (1683). With the removal of the political imperatives that motivated Patrick's particular style, his sermons fell out of favour with subsequent literary critics and have largely been neglected.

Moral and consolatory writings

Some of Patrick's most popular works were those designed to deal with moral and religious crises, and he specialized in spiritual counselling designed to reconcile the afflicted individual to the will of God. As a result they are characterized by an emphasis upon quietism and contemplative piety. His writings were often the product of specific cases. In 1660 Patrick produced The Heart's Ease, or, A Remedy Against Trouble for the wife of his patron, Lady St John, and he went on to produce a similar work combining sermons, maxims, and prayers in the 1670s (but published posthumously) under the title Advice to a Friend for his future wife, Penelope Jephson. However, Jephson was first attracted to Patrick as a counsellor after reading perhaps his best-known work in this genre, The Parable of the Pilgrim, written in 1663 but published in 1664. As Patrick made clear, The Parable was designed to provide moral guidance for an unnamed friend. The allegorical pilgrimage tradition of writing lent itself naturally to his aim of reconciling individual spirituality with an appropriate form of religiosity. He freely admits borrowing the model from the Benedictine Augustin Baker's Sancta Sophia (1657), which in turn had its roots in Walter Hilton's fourteenth-century work The Scale of Perfection. In the course of his journey to Jerusalem, Patrick's pilgrim Philotheus is encouraged to recognize the importance of his dependence upon his spiritual director who will guide him through life's trials in order to avoid spiritual trouble. The trouble stems from antinomian beliefs on the one hand and the temptations of Roman Catholicism on the other. The Parable's grave message of conformity to the established church seems designed to reassure those whose consciences were too tender to endorse the Act of Uniformity in 1662. Patrick seeks not to negate spirituality, but rather to harness it within the traditions of Anglicanism. The work proved to be immensely popular and passed through six editions before 1687. Bunyan's rejection of The Parable's conformist message in Pilgrim's Progress is perhaps the most famous response to Patrick's work.

Polemical writings

As The Parable of the Pilgrim demonstrates, a polemical edge is rarely missing from Patrick's work, but some of his productions stand out in this respect. The targets were those whose extremism threatened to distort the fabric of the true church as Patrick conceived it, antinomianism on the one side and Roman Catholicism on the other. He had produced sermons against what he saw as the Pharisaism of puritans in Cambridge in the 1650s, and he expanded this into a work titled The Jewish Hypocrisy (1660), which compared puritan precisionism with Jewish formalism. During the 1660s Patrick remained hostile to nonconformists who campaigned for comprehension or toleration. The abortive comprehension scheme of 1668–9, involving more liberal latitudinarians such as John Wilkins and John Tillotson, moved him to publish his Friendly Debate between a Conformist and a Non-Conformist in 1669. In a change of tone which shocked dissenters and friends alike, Patrick poured out page after page of invective against nonconformists in this largely one-sided dialogue, accusing the dissenters of glorying in the theology and rhetoric of antinomianism and portraying both as the fuel of sedition and social disruption. Patrick's response was to preach an uncompromising conformist message. The pamphlet was immediately a best-seller, running through five impressions in the year of publication. It was followed by two continuations in 1669 and an appendix in 1670 which defended his claims against his nonconformist critics. Patrick's last word came in 1671, when he restated his injunction to conformity in A Letter to the Author of a Discourse of Ecclesiastical Polity. Although the works brought reconciliation with Archbishop Sheldon, Matthew Hale accused Patrick of careerism and Richard Baxter and Gilbert Burnet were concerned that it encouraged prejudice against dissenters in general. Patrick defended himself and restated his position as late as 1683 in the preface to the sixth edition of the Friendly Debate. His change of heart, at least over the toleration and comprehension of moderate nonconformists, seems to have been related to a greater awareness of the importance of protestant unity in the face of the threat of popery.

Patrick had roundly condemned popery in his earliest writings, but the anti-Roman theme in his polemical works comes to the fore from the late 1670s. In 1680 he produced a revised translation of Grotius's De veritate religionis Christianae, to which he added a seventh book summarizing the general arguments against the Roman abuse of the Catholic tradition, thus inoculating Grotius against charges of ambiguity towards Rome. Patrick's contributions in the 1680s defended Anglicanism more aggressively, for example upholding the primitive apostolic tradition and the rule of faith in A Discourse about Tradition (1683). In The Pillar and Ground of Truth (1687), his most systematic anti-Roman work, he demonstrated the full range of misinterpretation and innovation that characterized what he saw as Rome's deviation from the primitive apostolic church.

Exegetical work

Patrick's Old Testament commentaries constitute one of his most enduring legacies. He published his annotations on the book of Job in 1679. The book of Psalms followed in 1680, Proverbs in 1683, Ecclesiastes and the Song of Solomon in 1685. Subsequently the complete paraphrase of and commentary upon all the books of the Old Testament were published in ten volumes between 1695 and 1710. Patrick deployed his considerable knowledge in a range of fields from ancient languages, the classics, and patristic writers through to natural philosophy. In his introduction to his commentary on Genesis he comments that he was motivated through a desire to demonstrate the truth of the scripture ‘without forsaking literal sense, and betaking to I know not what allegorical interpretations’ (Patrick, Commentary, sig. A1r). In this as in all his works, he is motivated by the desire to act as a guide to the interpretation of scripture, disproving sceptics and setting the bounds to the nature of the interpretation made. Patrick's work was widely praised and read well into the nineteenth century; it constituted a major part of the collection titled A Critical Commentary and Paraphrase of the Old and New Testaments (1727–60), better known by the names of the contributors: Simon Patrick, William Lowth, Daniel Whitby, and Richard Arnald.


Patrick, so often taken to be the archetype of the latitudinarian clergyman, nevertheless stands out among his latitudinarian colleagues. Arguably the closest to the in philosophy, he sought to harness their sense of spirituality within a traditional Anglican framework of scripture, tradition, and reason, keenly aware of the fragility of the boundary separating adoration from enthusiasm. This project is evident in his indefatigable practical ministry and throughout the devotional works for which he was famed. It also motivated his polemical works against those who rejected what he felt to be the most appropriate means of effecting a reconciliation with God. Although he would not achieve the same fame as his friends Tillotson and Stillingfleet, Patrick's long-term achievement lay in his ability to transpose what was distinctive about latitudinarianism into a working model of practical churchmanship which would prove to be influential long after his death.

Jon Parkin


DNB · The works of Symon Patrick, D.D., ed. A. Taylor, 9 vols. (1858) · S. Patrick, The devout Christian instructed how to pray (1672) · S. Patrick, A commentary upon the historical books of the Old Testament, 2 vols. (1738) · S. P., A brief account of a new sect of latitude-men, ed. T. A. Birrell (1963) · S. Knight, ‘Life of Symon Patrick’, CUL, Add. MS 20 · The correspondence of Henry Hyde, earl of Clarendon, and of his brother Lawrence Hyde, earl of Rochester, ed. S. W. Singer, 2 (1828) · Works, ed. T. Birch, 3 vols. (1752), vol. 1 · J. H. Overton, Life in the English church (1660–1714) (1885) · Reliquiae Baxterianae, or, Mr Richard Baxter's narrative of the most memorable passages of his life and times, ed. M. Sylvester, 1 vol. in 3 pts (1696), pt 3 · Bishop Burnet’s History of his own time: with the suppressed passages of the first volume, ed. M. J. Routh, 6 vols. (1823), vol. 1 · J. van den Berg, ‘Between Platonism and Enlightenment: Simon Patrick (1625–1707) and his place in the latitudinarian movement’, Nederlands Archief voor Kerkesgeschiedenis, 68 (1988), 164–79 · H. R. McAdoo, The spirit of Anglicanism (1965) · Fasti Angl. (Hardy), vols. 1–3 · S. Patrick, The parable of the pilgrim, ed. T. Chamberlain (1839) · Venn, Alum. Cant. · Wood, Ath. Oxon., new edn, vol. 4 · K. Stevenson, ‘Ely episcopal theologians in the seventeenth century’, www.ely.anglican.org/history/talk19990209/patrick.html, 25 Nov 2002 · S. Sim, ‘“Vertuous Mediocrity” and “Fanatick Conventicle”: pilgrimage styles in John Bunyan and Bishop Simon Patrick’, English Studies, 4 (1987), 316–24 · J. Spurr, The Restoration Church of England, 1646–1689 (1991) · W. M. Spellman, The latitudinarians and the Church of England (c.1993) · G. R. Cragg, From puritanism to the age of reason (1950) · R. L. Colie, Light and enlightenment: a study of the Cambridge Platonists and the Dutch Arminians (1957) · I. Rivers, Reason, grace, and sentiment: a study of the language of religion and ethics in England, 1660–1780, 1 (1991) · J. Gascoigne, Cambridge in the age of the Enlightenment (1989) · J. Gascoigne, ‘Isaac Barrow's academic milieu: interregnum and Restoration Cambridge’, Before Newton: the life and times of Isaac Barrow, ed. M. Feingold (1990), 250–90 · J. Twigg, A history of Queens' College, Cambridge, 1448–1986 (1987) · J. Twigg, The University of Cambridge and the English Revolution, 1625–1688 (1990) · J. Tulloch, Rational theology and Christian philosophy in England in the seventeenth century, 2nd edn, 2 vols. (1874) · J. Bentham, The history and antiquities of the conventual and cathedral church of Ely, ed. J. Bentham, 2nd edn (1812), vol. 1 · T. R. Preston, ‘Biblical criticism, literature, and the eighteenth-century reader’, Books and their readers in eighteenth-century England, ed. I. Rivers (1982), 97–126 · Biographia Britannica, or, The lives of the most eminent persons who have flourished in Great Britain and Ireland, 7 vols. (1747–66), vol. 5 · C. J. Abbey, The English church and its bishops, 1700–1800, 2 vols. (1887), vol. 1 · M. Jacob, The Newtonians and the English revolution (1976) · J. Parkin, Science, religion and politics in Restoration England: Richard Cumberland's De legibus naturae (1999) · IGI · will, TNA: PRO, PROB 11/497, sig. 226 · private information (2007) [A. Thomson]


BL, private prayer for use in difficult times, Add. MS 40160, fol. 13 · CUL, corresp. and papers, Add. MSS 19–20, 24, 36, 40, 51, 53, 56, 61–66, 70–71, 78, 81–84, 103, 150 · CUL, MS Mm 1.40 · CUL, MS Dd. III.72 |  BL, letters to Lord Hatton, Add. MSS 29565, 29584 · BL, letters to J. Edwards and J. Humfrey, Add. MS 4274


P. Lely, oils, c.1668, NPG [see illus.] · oils, c.1691, LPL · R. White, line engraving, 1700 (after Kneller), BM, NPG · G. Vandergucht, line engraving, 1727 (after G. Kneller), NPG · Kneller, oils, Ely Cathedral; copy, Queens' College, Cambridge