, was the son of Alexander McLeish or McClise (17771861), a soldier of Scottish parentage who served in the Elgin fencibles in Ireland, and married Rebecca Buchanan in Cork on 24 December 1797. After leaving the army in 1801 he ran a tanning yard and shoemaking business supplying army contracts at Nile Street, where Maclise was born. Maclise's baptism was recorded on 2 February 1806 in the register of the Presbyterian church, Prince's Street, Cork. There were five other surviving children of the marriage: Joseph and William, who both became medical practitioners; Alexander, who remained in Cork; Anna, who married Percival Banks, a London barrister; and Isabella, who kept house for the painter later in London. After 1835 Daniel spelled his name Maclise in place of other forms.
Education and early career
Maclise received a good basic classical education in Cork, where he displayed his interest in drawing rather than academic pursuits. His talent was noticed in his father's shop about 1820 by Margaret Spratt, a local lady who introduced him to George Newenham, a Cork banker, amateur artist, and collector, who provided him with his first experience in oils. He was also introduced to William Penrose, a prominent Cork collector whose home was at Woodhill. Maclise worked for a few months in 1820 as a clerk in Newenham's bank but left to study at the Cork drawing academy from the collection of plaster casts of the Vatican marbles which had been presented by Pope Pius VII to the prince regent and had been taken to Cork in 1818. He also attended the lectures in anatomy for artists given by Dr Woodroffe at the Royal Cork Institution. Woodroffe had a medical school in Parnell Place, and later practised surgery in Jervis Street Hospital, Dublin. Drawings by Maclise displayed in his father's shop attracted the attention of the antiquary and coin collector Richard Sainthill (17871870), who became his most important early patron: he gave Maclise the use of a room as a studio in his house in Nelson Place, and introduced him to antiquarian and romantic literature. In 1820 Maclise met S. C. Hall who, as the editor of the Art Journal
, was a strong supporter of the painter in its pages. Through Sainthill he also met Thomas Crofton Croker (17981854), a pioneer of Irish folklore research, whose Fairy Legends and Traditions of the South of Ireland
, vol. 1, appeared in 1825; Maclise contributed some whimsical scenes of Irish life to the edition of 1826. At Sainthill's request he later made drawings of ancient Irish gold objects which Sainthill sent to Croker in London; Croker in return sent paints to Maclise. On 9 August 1825 Sir Walter Scott, on a tour of Ireland, visited Bolster's bookshop in Cork, where Maclise made outline portrait drawings.
From these he worked up an elaborate profile portrait drawing of Scott which was lithographed in Dublin, bringing him his first public success. This enabled him to open his own studio in late 1825 in Patrick Street, Cork, making portrait drawings in an elegant linear style influenced by the neo-classical manner of the Cork-born painter Adam Buck. Maclise made a number of portrait drawings of officers and professional people, such as Richard Sheares and his niece Alice (1826), and the Revd Richard Hopkins Ryland (c
.1827); both portraits are now in the British Museum. In 1826 Maclise visited Dublin, where he portrayed Colonel John Townshend of the 14th light dragoons and other officers of the regiment. In the summer of that year, he went on a walking tour of co. Wicklow as far as Avoca and made a large number of drawings of well-known views, inspired by the ideals of the picturesque tour. He visited Donnybrook fair, Dublin, and then headed for Cork, drawing the Rock of Cashel, and travelling along the Blackwater to Lismore. In autumn 1826 he resumed his portrait practice in Cork. His sketchbooks in the Victoria and Albert Museum have large numbers of studies of Irish peasants, women and children, and scenic views.
Encouraged mainly by Sainthill, Maclise prepared a drawing for admission as a probationer student at the Royal Academy Schools. He left Cork travelling via Bristol to London, where he arrived on 18 July 1827. Sainthill entrusted him to Croker's care and gave him letters of introduction to C. R. Leslie, William Wyon, and a wide literary circle. He lived first in Newman Street, then in 1828 at 12, and in 1829 at 14 Charles Street; in 1831 he moved to 63 Upper Charlotte Street and in 1837 to 14 Russell Place, where he remained until he moved finally to 4 Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, in the early 1860s. In addition, in the early 1860s, he had a first-floor apartment in Brighton.
Maclise established his reputation in London as a portrait draughtsman with a lithograph of the début of Charles Kean (published on 1 October 1827) at Drury Lane; similarly he had a drawing lithographed of the London début of the celebrated violinist Niccolò Paganini on 3 June 1831, and published by T. McLean that year. Through Croker he was introduced to the literary world, including Thomas Moore and Benjamin Disraeli. Maclise became a regular visitor at the Disraeli family home, where he mixed with fashionable society; he made portraits of the Disraelis and their relations, the Lindoos, and Disraeli's friends Sarah and Benjamin Austin.
Maclise served as a probationer student at the Royal Academy in 18278, and was finally enrolled on 20 April 1828 as a painting student. He received a silver medal for antique drawing in 1829 (the year in which he first exhibited at the Royal Academy summer exhibition) and silver medals and prizes for life drawing and for a copy of Guido Reni in December 1830. His Royal Academy nudes of 1830 and 1831 (V&A) display careful cross-hatching and powerful draughtsmanship; he also portrayed academy teachers, such as John Constable. The culmination of his studies came with the gold medal for history painting, awarded for his Choice of Hercules
(priv. coll.) in December 1831. However, he declined the travelling scholarship to Italy which was part of the prize. He had already visited Paris for some months in 1830, studying in the Louvre, the Luxembourg, and at Versailles; he also planned to go to Spain but had to return because of illness.
Maclise went to Ireland in autumn 1832 stopping off en route
at various sites in the English midlands and north Wales. In Cork, the Society for the Promotion of the Fine Arts awarded gold medals to Maclise and John Hogan (then back from Rome) on 1 October 1832; Maclise went on to Killarney and made drawings of antiquities there. With Croker, he attended a Hallowe'en party given in Blarney by Father Matthew Horgan, a fellow antiquary: this resulted in Snap Apple
or All Hallows Eve
(exh. RA, 1833; priv. coll.), which shows the influence of the Cork painter Nathaniel Grogan and of David Wilkie. Also arising out of his Irish experience was The Installation of Captain Rock
(exh. RA, 1834), whose subject was drawn from the rituals of Irish agrarian secret societies. His only other certain return visit to Ireland was in September 1837, when he stayed at the Imperial Hotel, Cork. He portrayed Irish rural scenes in his illustrations to Francis Mahony's Reliques of Father Prout
(1836) and John Barrows's Tour around Ireland through Sea Coast Counties in the Autumn of 1835
(1836). Ireland: its Scenery and Character
, 1 (1841) by S. C. Hall and Anna Hall carried two of his illustrations of Irish customs, and Anna Hall's Sketches of Irish Character
(1842) carried six of his idealized images of Irish women.
Through Croker, Maclise was introduced to William Maginn, also of Cork origin, the editor of Fraser's Magazine
from its inception in 1830 to 1836. During this period Maclise, under the pseudonym Alfred Croquis, contributed eighty-one lithographed drawings of eminent literary or political figuresone to each issue, with two final ones in 1838. These caricatures, accompanied by Maginn's texts, describing each individual, show an interdependence of word and image characteristic of early Victorian journalism and nice touches of humour, satire, and sharp comment. Edited by William Bates, the series was collected and published as The Maclise Portrait Gallery
in 1874, 1883, and 1898. Among the subjects were Coleridge, Wordsworth, Goethe, Carlyle, Moore, Scott, Bulwer-Lytton, Disraeli, Croker, Leigh Hunt, Charles Lamb, Faraday, Lord John Russell, William Cobbett, Daniel O'Connell, Talleyrand, George Cruikshank, and John Soane. Exhibiting great elegance and economy of line, these drawings established Maclise's reputation in the 1830s and were singled out for extensive praise by the Pre-Raphaelite D. G. Rossetti: I suppose no such series of the portraits of celebrated persons of an epoch, produced by an eye and hand of so much insight and power, and realised with such a view to the actual impression of the sitter, exists anywhere (The Academy
, 15 April 1871, 21718). Through Fraser's
, Maclise met the Irish-born countess of Blessington and her lover Count d'Orsay and he contributed illustrations of pretty girls to the annual Heath's Book of Beauty
(vols. 35, 18357), which were edited by the countess. He had a brief flirtation with the poet Letitia Elizabeth Landon, who was admired by the Fraser's
circle, and in 1836 he had a liaison with Lady Henrietta Sykes, who had previously been Disraeli's mistress; the affair resulted in abortive divorce proceedings against Maclise by her husband Sir Francis Sykes in 1838. A more pleasing result of Maclise's relationship with Henrietta was his very fine watercolour portrait of the Sykes family in medieval dress (c
.1837, Sykes collection).
Maclise was thoroughly at home in the world of writers and literary culture, and in 1827 he met the novelist W. H. Ainsworth at Croker's home in London. He became a regular visitor to Ainsworth's house, Kensal Lodge, and painted his portrait on two occasions. At Ainsworth's parties he first met John Forster, probably in 1834; they dined together at the Garrick Club. This was to be a lifelong friendship: it was through Forster that so many of Maclise's drawings, paintings, and letters found their way to the Victoria and Albert Museum after the painter's death. In 1836, when Forster met Dickens, he introduced Maclise to the novelist and they all met frequently at the Parthenon Club, St James's Square. In May 1835 Maclise was introduced to W. C. Macready, the leading actor of the day, whose productions inspired his paintings on Shakespearian themes; Maclise, Dickens, and Forster often met Macready backstage in the late 1830s. Maclise painted a celebrated portrait of Dickens in 1839 (NPG), and during 1840 his friendship with Dickens was at its height. In April he accompanied Dickens to Richmond and on to Stratford and Lichfield; they also took walks together in the Hampstead area of London. In July 1841 Maclise visited Dickens at his seaside residence at Broadstairs and in November 1842 he accompanied Dickens, Forster, and Stanfield on a tour of Cornwall. One result of this close friendship was Girl at the Waterfall at St. Nighton's Kieve
(exh. RA, 1843; V&A), which shows Georgina Hogarth, Dickens's sister-in-law. Maclise's warm and care-free character appealed greatly to Dickens, although in subsequent years they drifted apart.
The beginnings of Maclise's career as a history painter can be seen in his The Choice of Hercules
(1831), an example of a conservative eighteenth-century approach. Maclise was, however, part of a new movement to describe historical subjects with historical accuracy and an emphasis on the human story; his involvement was first evident in The Interview between Charles I and Oliver Cromwell
(1836, National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin). He was much attracted to the tory Young England movement of Disraeli with its idealization of medieval social customs; this influence was evident in Merry Christmas in the Baron's Hall
(1838, National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin), which is stylistically dependent on Netherlandish seventeenth-century painting. His love of the panoply of medievalism is revealed, too, in the Chivalrous Vow of the Ladies and the Peacock
(1835), inspired by Scott's The Lay of the Last Minstrel
. He was also deeply influenced by the exoticism of contemporary romantic literature: The Veiled Prophet of Khoressan
(1832; known through watercolours in the V&A), was an oriental fantasy inspired by Moore's Lallah Rookh
. An instant success, it brought him much public attention, and when it was exhibited in Liverpool in 1832, gained him a prize of 80 guineas. His success was recognized by the Royal Academy, which made him an associate in 1835 and a full member in 1840 after he deposited The Wood Ranger
as his diploma piece; it epitomizes his Netherlandish style of the 1830s.
Maclise distinguished himself as a book illustrator of texts by British writers, illustrating both Edward Bulwer-Lytton's Pilgrims of the Rhine
(1834) and his Lelia, or, The Siege of Granada
(1839)an orientalist romanceand Milton's L'allegro and Il penseroso in S. C. Hall's Book of Gems
(1836). For Dickens he contributed illustrations to a number of books: The Old Curiosity Shop
(1840), The Cricket on the Hearth
(1846), The Chimes
(1845), and The Battle of Life
(1846), mainly depicting fairy fantasies on the frontispieces. His finest achievement in book illustration was his work for The Irish Melodies
(1845) by his fellow Irishman, Thomas Moore, which shows the strong influence of contemporary German illustrated books; similarly Germanic were his illustrations for G. Bürger's Leonora
(1847). Two of his illustrations were for Morte d'Arthur in the 1857 Moxon edition of Tennyson's Poems
; he also completely illustrated Tennyson's The Princess
(1860). A very large number of his oils were based on literature, such as his Scene from Undine
(1843) purchased by Queen Victoria and still in the Royal Collection. He also painted subjects from Goldsmith's Vicar of Wakefield
, Lesage's Gil Blas
, and Lady Morgan's Life of Salvator Rosa
, and individual fancy pictures like The Falconer
(1853; Crawford Art Gallery, Cork).
Maclise's lifelong interest in the theatre is evident in his paintings of Shakespearian scenes, where he reflected the theatrical move to greater historical accuracy of costume and setting, as in the productions of Charles Kean and W. C. Macready. This trend is apparent in Malvolio and the Countess
(1840; National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin), and in two major pieces: The Banquet Scene from Macbeth
(1840; Guildhall, London) and The Play Scene from Hamlet
(1842; Tate collection). There is a strongly theatrical quality about them in the depiction of gesture and expression. Compositionally he was also influenced by the engraved Shakespearian outlines of the contemporary German illustrator Moritz Retzsch. Hamlet
drew strong praise from most critics (although not from Ruskin), and went originally to the Vernon Gallery. These Shakespearian subjects from Macbeth
display a new seriousness in Maclise's work, confirmed in a set of drawings, the Seven Ages of Man from As You Like It
, engraved by the Art Union
(1850). His lighter side can be appreciated in Orlando and the Wrestler
(1854, Forbes magazine collection, New York) with its Pre-Raphaelite detail of plants. Also arising from his involvement with the theatre were his portraits of Macready as Werner
(1850) and Foster as Kitely
(exh. RA, 1848)both in the Victoria and Albert Museumpainted as tokens of friendship.
His work for Westminster Palace formed the centrepiece of Maclise's career. He submitted a drawing, The Knight
, to the competition of 1844 and was one of the artists who were invited to paint trial murals in the Garden Pavilion of Buckingham Palace, on the initiative of Prince Albert. Following those experiments, he was selected to enter a further competition for the House of Lords murals; to prepare himself he travelled to Paris with his brother Dr Joseph Maclise in 1844. He stayed near the Luxembourg and was deeply impressed by contemporary French art, especially the Hemicycle
of Delaroche in the École des Beaux-Arts; the visit helped to reorientate his career to monumental painting. He was in Paris again in 1845, with Dickens and other friends on a social visit. In July 1845, in Westminster Hall, he exhibited a cartoon, sketch, and fresco specimen of The Spirit of Chivalry
, one of the designated themes for the House of Lords, in a Gothic style influenced by German Nazarene art: it was approved and the fresco was completed in 1848. He painted the companion fresco, The Spirit of Justice
in 1849. The House of Lords frescoes drew strong critical approval from the Athenaeum
and from Gustav Waagen. Closely related in style was his portrait (in oil) of the actress Caroline Norton as Erin
(1846; priv. coll.) painted in a Nazarene manner with a gold background. However, his physical and mental health suffered from his prolonged fresco painting.
Maclise had a great men of history approach to the past, probably influenced by Carlyle, and during the 1850s he painted a series of monumental narrative subjects. Influenced by the German Illustrated Bible
(Cotta, 1846) he painted The Sacrifice of Noah
(RA, 1847; Leeds City Art Gallery), one of his most fluently painted works with strong Germanic and Netherlandish tendencies combined. Inspired by Bulwer-Lytton's novel The Last of the Barons
, he painted Caxton's Printing Office
(1851; priv. coll.), an allegory of moral progress through the invention of printing; it was followed by another historical workshop scene, Peter the Great at Deptford Dockyard
(1857; Royal Holloway College, Surrey). During the 1850s, affected by the rising tide of Irish cultural nationalism and now a member of the Irish Society in London, he was particularly interested in Hiberno-Saxon themes celebrating the rights of different, mainly Celtic, groups, in the face of military conquest. He criticized the military invader in King Alfred and the Camp of the Danes
(exh. RA, 1852; Laing Art Gallery, Newcastle upon Tyne), Edward I Presenting his Infant Son (the First Prince of Wales) to the Welsh People
(184858; squared drawing, V&A), and The Marriage of Strongbow and Eva
(exh. RA, 1854; National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin). The latter, with its Celtic revivalist ideology, is a summation of his approach to history painting and a testimony to his Irish origin. Finally, his Norman Conquest
series of drawings inspired by Bulwer-Lytton's Harold the Last of the Saxon Kings
, was exhibited in 1857 and published as an album of engravings in 1866.
The culmination of the narrative histories and of Maclise's career came with the commission for The Meeting of Wellington and Blücher
and The Death of Nelson
for the Royal Gallery of Westminster Palace. Originally these were to be accompanied by sixteen other subjects from the history of the United Kingdom: he offered to undertake all of these works and was commissioned in 1858. He exhibited a cartoon, 45 feet long, of Wellington
in May 1859 which drew the admiration of a number of his fellow artists, who presented him with a gold porte crayon. The Athenaeum
and the Art Journal
praised the work, although there was public controversy over the historicity of the moment depicted. Maclise conducted extensive research for the military details; faced with the difficulty of painting it in fresco, he sought to resign the commission but was dissuaded. In order to familiarize himself with the new waterglass technique he visited Berlin, Munich, and Dresden in autumn 1859, studying the work of Wilhelm von Kaulbach and his pupils. The mural was completed in December 1861 and drew favourable comment, especially from F. G. Stephens in The Athenaeum
(2 November 1861, 1775, 5856). From 1863 to 1865 he worked on The Death of Nelson
, which involved extensive naval research. Following the death of Prince Albert, who was a strong supporter of Maclise, the decorative programmes were cut back and his contract for the remaining works was cancelled, to his great distress.
In his last years Maclise returned to the subjects of his youth, scenes from Shakespeare and also new subjects reflecting Pre-Raphaelite influence: Madeleine after Prayer
from Keats (exh. RA, 1868; Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool) and King Cophetua and the Beggar Maid
(exh. RA, 1869). He recapitulated his genre scenes of the 1830s in A Winter's Night Tale
(exh. RA, 1867; Manchester City Galleries); his last painting, The Earls of Ormond and Desmond
(exh. RA, 1870), was, appropriately, taken from Irish history.
Professional standing and family life
In his career Maclise also made designs for the applied artsa bracelet design for Henry Cole in 1848, the prize medal for the international exhibition of 1862, and the Royal Academy Turner gold medal in 1859. He was active in the life of the academy, serving on its council and deputizing for the president in 1869, and teaching regularly in the schools during the 1850s. He served as a juror at the Paris Universal Exhibition of 1855; also travelling during that year to Lyons and Naples with his brother Joseph. He became a member of the Athenaeum in 1841. A confirmed bachelor, on the death in 1850 of his brother-in-law, P. W. Banks, Maclise took over the responsibility of supporting his sister Anna Banks and her family; his sister Isabella, who kept house for him, died in 1865, leaving him bereft. In his last years his heart deteriorated and he was largely confined to his home at Cheyne Walk. Maclise died there on 25 April 1870 of pneumonia and was buried in Kensal Green cemetery, London. At the Royal Academy dinner of 30 April 1870 Dickens paid a fulsome tribute to his old friend. As a young man, Maclise was tall, handsome, and well-built, and he loved swimming. Charming and excellent company in the 1820s and 1830s, he later tended to overwork and was prone to depression and withdrew into himself.
Maclise's greatest strengths as an artist were his figure draughtsmanship and pictorial composition, talents that enabled him to deal with complex narrative subjects on a large scale. He could combine great detail with clear pictorial structure and his drawings and illustrations have a linear precision which is retained in the oil paintings. His weakness lay in a tendency to pile on descriptive detail with insufficient attention to the harmonizing possibilities of tone and colour. In the characterization of his figures, he tended to rely on stereotypes with insufficient individualism. His painting style is harsh and lacks painterly effect.
Nevertheless, he was one of the few painters in the history of British and Irish art who could paint monumental narrative scenes with success. This was his principal achievement. In common with other nineteenth-century painters of historical subjects, such as Paul Delaroche, he aimed at factual reconstructions of period costume, setting, and storynotably in his narrative subjects of the 1850s and 1860s. Equally, however, he believed with his contemporaries that history painting was a moral teacher, that by focusing on significant events and personalities of the past, he was able to encapsulate political and social change. These two imperatives in history paintingthe factual and the moralisticcould be contradictory and Maclise's historical scholarship was often inaccurate and his ideological narratives over-simplifications of history. As an Irish artist, he made a culturally nationalist statement in The Marriage of Strongbow and Eva
(exh. RA, 1854; National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin), which was a pointer to the Celtic revival of the late nineteenth century. Like a historical novelist, he created grand monumental and imaginative narratives on British and Irish history, reflecting the romantic ideals of the nineteenth century towards the past.
E. Kenealy, Daniel Maclise: our portrait gallery, Dublin University Magazine, 29 (1847), 594607 · W. J. O'Driscoll, A memoir of Daniel Maclise (1871) · Redgrave, Artists, 2823 · A. Cunningham, The lives of the most eminent British painters, rev. Mrs C. Heaton, 3 (1880), 406ff · Graves, Artists · W. G. Strickland, A dictionary of Irish artists, 2 (1913); facs. edn with introduction by T. J. Snoddy (1969), 6479 · M. M. H. Thrall, Rebellious Fraser's: Nol Yorke's magazine in the days of Maginn, Thackeray, and Carlyle (1934) · R. Ormond, Burlington Magazine, 110 (1968), 68593 · J. Turpin, The Irish background of Daniel Maclise, Capuchin Annual (1970), 17794 · R. Ormond and J. Turpin, eds., Daniel Maclise, 18061870 (1972) [exhibition catalogue, NPG, 3 March 16 April 1972; NG Ire., 5 May 18 June 1972] · R. Ormond, Daniel Maclise: a major figurative painter, The Connoisseur, 179 (1972), 16571 · J. Turpin, The lure of the Celtic past in the art of Daniel Maclise, Ireland of the Welcomes, 21/1 (MayJune 1972), 326 · J. Turpin, German influence on Daniel Maclise, Apollo, 97 (1973), 16975 · J. Turpin, Daniel Maclise and his place in Victorian art, Anglo-Irish Studies, 1 (1975), 5169 · A. Crookshank and the Knight of Glin [D. Fitzgerald], The painters of Ireland, c.16601920 (1978) · J. Turpin, Daniel Maclise and Cork Society, Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, 2nd ser., 85 (1980), 6678 · J. Turpin, Daniel Maclise, Disraeli, and Fraser's Magazine, ÉireIreland, 15/1 (1980), 4663 · J. Turpin, Maclise as a Dickens illustrator, The Dickensian, 76 (1980), 6777 · J. Turpin, Daniel Maclise and Charles Dickens: a study of their friendship, Studies [Dublin], 73/289 (spring 1984), 4764 · J. Turpin, Maclise as a book illustrator, Irish Arts Review, 2/2 (1985), 237 · P. MacEvansoneya, Daniel Maclise and a bankrupt patron, Irish Arts Review Yearbook, 12 (1996), 1289 · F. G. Stephens, Interview between Wellington and Blucher after Waterloo, The Athenaeum (2 Nov 1861), 5856 · J. Turpin, The life and work of Daniel Maclise, 18061870, PhD diss., Courtauld Inst., 1973 · N. Weston, The development of Irish nationalism in the art and life of Daniel Maclise, PhD diss., University of Southern California, 1991 · N. Weston, Daniel Maclise: Irish artist in Victorian London (2001) · register, Presbyterian Church, Prince's Street, Cork, 2 Feb 1806 [baptisms]
RA, autobiographical notes
TCD, letters and memoranda
V&A NAL, letters | Herts. ALS, Bulwer-Lytton MSS
Hunt. L., letters to Charles Dickens and others
RA, minutes of council of a general assembly
V&A, C. L. Eastlake, official corresp., MS 86 0 8
V&A NAL, letters to J. N. Forster
D. Maclise, self-portrait, pencil and watercolour, 1829, NG Ire.; repro. in O'Driscoll, Memoir of Daniel Maclise, frontispiece · D. Maclise, self-portrait, watercolour, 1829, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston · C. Stanfield, group portrait, watercolour and body colour, 1842, V&A · T. Bridgford, pencil drawing, 1844, NG Ire.; repro. in Kenealy, Daniel Maclise: our portrait gallery · C. H. Lear, two chalk drawings, 1845, NPG · E. M. Ward, oils, 1846, NPG · C. W. Cope, pencil drawing, c.18461849, Palace of Westminster, London · C. Bauginet, lithograph, pubd 1857, BM, NPG · C. B. Birch, pencil drawing, c.1858, NPG · W. L. Price, photograph, c.1858, RA [see illus.] · J. Thomas, marble bust, 1859, NG Ire.; replica, NG Ire. · C. G. Lewis, group portrait, mixed engraving, pubd 1864 (The intellect and valour of Great Britain), NPG · E. Davis, marble bust, 1870, RA · A. B. Wyon, medal, 1878, NPG; repro. in Art Union · M. Jackson, woodcut (after T. Scott), BM · D. Maclise, self-portraits, sketches, V&A · attrib. Maull & Polyblank, photograph, NPG · M. L. Menpes, drypoint, BM, NPG · D. J. Pound, stipple and line engraving (after photograph by Mayall), BM, NPG; repro. in D. J. Pound, Drawing room portrait gallery of eminent personages (185960) · cartes-de-visite, NPG · lithograph (after drawing; repro. in Fraser's Magazine), BM; repro. in Maginn's gallery of illustrious literary characters (1873) · photograph, NPG
Wealth at death
under £40,000: probate, 12 May 1870, CGPLA Eng. & Wales