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Abbas Hilmi ['Abbās Ḥilmi] II (1874–1944), last khedive of Egypt, was born on 14 July 1874 in Alexandria, Egypt, the son of Muhammad Tawfiq (1852–1892), sixth ruler of Egypt under the dynasty founded in 1811 by his great-great-grandfather Mehmet Ali, and Princess Emine Hanem...

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Abdul Rahman, Tunku (1902–1990), prime minister of Malaysia, was born in Alor Setar, Kedah (a Malay state then under British ‘protection’), on 8 February 1902, the seventh son of Abdul Hamid Halim Shah, sultan of Kedah (fl. 1882–1943), and his Thai wife, ...

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Abdul Razak bin Hussein, Tun (1922–1976), prime minister of Malaysia, was born in Pulau Keladi in the state of Pahang (a Malay state then under British ‘protection’), on 11 March 1922. Descended from a line of Bugis chieftains who had emigrated from Sulawesi...

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Abdullah ibn Hussein ['Abd Allāh ibn al-Ḥusayn] (1882–1951), emir of Transjordan and founder of the Hashemite kingdom of Jordan, was born in February 1882 in Mecca in the Ottoman province of Hejaz. He was the second of three sons of Hussein ibn Ali...

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Abdurahman, Abdullah (1872–1940), political leader and physician, was born on 18 December 1872 in Wellington, a country town in south-western Cape Colony, the eldest son of the nine children of Abdul Arraman (also known as Rahman), small trader and civic figure, who was a patron of ...

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Abu al-Hasan [Abū'l-Ḥasan] [known as Mirza Abu al-Hasan Shirazi] (1776–1846), diplomatist for Persia, was born in Shiraz, the second son of Mirza Muhammad Ali, a high-ranking Persian court official. His mother was also closely connected with the court through her brother, ...

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Abu Bakar [Abu Bakar ibni al-Marhum Dato Temenggong Sri Maharaja Tun Ibrahim] (1833–1895), sultan of Johore, was born in Teluk Belanga, Singapore, most probably on 3 February 1833, the eldest son of Daing Ibrahim (1810–1862) and his first wife, Encik Ngah (also known as Tengku Andak)...

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Abu Bakar (1833–1895) by unknown photographer © reserved

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Aga Khan III (1877–1957) by Dorothy Wilding, c. 1953 © Tom Hustler / National Portrait Gallery, London

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Gilbert Laithwaite

Reviser: Francis Robinson

Aga Khan [Mohammed Shah] III (1877–1957), leader of the Ismailis, was born in Karachi on 2 November 1877, a member of the ruling Qajar dynasty in Persia, the son of Aga Ali Shah, Aga Khan II (d. 1885), and Shams al-Muluk, known as ...