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Abercromby, David (d. 1701?), physician and philosopher, most probably belonged to the Abercrombys of Seaton in the north-east of Scotland where he is believed to have been born. It is not known if Abercromby married or had children, although what survives of his biography makes marriage unlikely. Nothing is known of his parentage....

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Alcindor, John (1873–1924), general practitioner and leader of the African Progress Union, was born on 8 or 9 July 1873 in Port of Spain, Trinidad, the son of Francis Alcindor, cocoa planter. Almost nothing is known of his parents, though there were funds to pay for his schooling and medical studies. The family's African ancestry was suggested by ...

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Amoroso, Emmanuel Ciprian (1901–1982), veterinary embryologist and endocrinologist, was born on 16 September 1901 in Port of Spain, Trinidad, the third child in the family of eight sons (one of them adopted) and three daughters of Thomas Amoroso, bookkeeper and later estate owner, and his wife, ...

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Arderne, John (b. 1307/8, d. in or after 1377), surgeon and author, was the most important English person in his field before the seventeenth century. He made considerable claims for the originality of his surgical technique, although allowance must be made for his gift for self-publicity. What is learned from his works is enough to show not only that he was a highly paid and respected surgeon, but also that his writing is unique in its insights into the practical realities of medieval surgery. Unlike other surgical authors he reveals not only the surgery that was taught and transmitted in writing, but also what was actually done face-to-face with the patient. Unfortunately there are no records or other independent testimony revealing his life and career; what is known about him is known through his writings....

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Argentine, John (c. 1443–1508), physician and college head, was the most eminent of the first generation of Italian-trained doctors to return to a medical and academic career in England. He was born at Bottisham in Cambridgeshire, into a well-connected family; he entered Eton College...

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Neil Arnott (1788–1874) by Smyth (after Jabez Hogg) © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Arnott, Neil (1788–1874), physician and public health reformer, the son of William Arnott, a manufacturer and farmer, and his wife, Ann Maclean, was born at Arbroath in Forfarshire, Scotland, on 15 May 1788. A Roman Catholic by upbringing, he was educated by his mother, at the parish school of ...

Article

E. M. Thompson

revised by Sarah Bakewell

Arthur, Thomas [Thomas Arthur FitzWilliam] (1593–1675), physician, son of William Arthur, was born on 24 November 1593 of a Roman Catholic family in Limerick. His father's name being William, he often styled himself Thomas Arthur FitzWilliam. He was educated at Bordeaux, where he obtained his master's degree, at ...

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Arundell, John (c. 1400–1477), physician and bishop of Chichester, was a Cornishman, almost certainly of the Lanherne branch of the family, whose arms he bore. The likelihood is that he was the son of Sir John Arundell (d. 1433), landowner, and his wife, ...

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H. R. Tedder

revised by Michael Bevan

Atkinson, James (1759–1839), surgeon and bibliographer, the son of a medical practitioner and friend of Laurence Sterne, received his medical education as a pupil of Henry Cline of St Thomas's Hospital, London, and attended the lectures of Thomas Denman, physician-accoucheur to the Middlesex Hospital...

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James Atkinson (1759–1839) by William Etty, 1832 York Museums Trust (York Art Gallery)

Article

Sidney Lee

revised by Rachel E. Davies

Atslowe, Edward (d. 1594), physician, probably from Eversholt, Bedfordshire, was educated at Winchester College, and admitted BA at New College, Oxford, in 1555. After being elected to a fellowship at his college he was created MD at Oxford on 27 August 1566, and was one of the four doctors appointed by convocation to dispute before ...

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Bald (fl. c. 900), supposed physician and medical writer, was the owner and probable author of a work titled Læceboc (leechbook), a compilation in Old English of medical recipes and treatments. All that is known of Bald is to be found in the Latin verse colophon to the ...

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Barclay, William (b. c. 1570, d. in or after 1627), medical writer and Latin poet, was born at Cullen, Banffshire, one of at least three sons of Walter Barclay (d. 1587), the fiar of Towie, and his wife, Elizabeth, or Elspeth, Hay (...

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Barlow, James (1767–1839), obstetric surgeon, was born at Croichley Fold Farm, Hawkshaw, Lancashire, the son of William Barlow (d. 1815) and his wife, Catherine Taylor (d. 1768); they also had a daughter, Catherine, and an elder son, John. He was a descendant of the ...

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James Barry (c. 1799–1865) by unknown photographer, c. 1860 [left, with a servant] Trustees of the Army Medical Services Museum

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Barry, James (c. 1799–1865), army medical officer and transvestite, was probably born Margaret, the youngest daughter of Mrs Mary Ann Bulkley or Bulkeley, the sister of the artist James Barry; her paternity is in doubt. From the age of ten she dressed and presented herself as a man, but the woman who laid out her corpse declared that she was female: 'The Devil, a General,' said the attendant. 'It's a woman. And a woman that has had a child' (...

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Barton, John (fl. 1417), physician and alleged heretic, was the subject of a testimonial issued at Reading on 11 May 1417 by Archbishop Chichele, stating that John Barton, described as a doctor of the city of London, had purged himself in a provincial council held at ...

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Bentley, Charlotte Eliza (1915–1996), nurse and nursing activist, was born on 15 December 1915 at 63 Portland Court, Great Portland Street, London, the daughter of John Richard Bentley, hosier, and Charlotte Emma Redard. After education at a Swiss convent school and secretarial training ...

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Thompson Cooper

revised by Patrick Wallis

Betts, John (c. 1623–1695), physician, was born in Winchester, the son of Edward Betts (b. c.1578) and his wife, Dorothy, daughter of John Venables, of Rapley in Hampshire. He was educated at Winchester College, was elected a scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford...