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Alison, Sir Archibald, first baronet (1792–1867), historian and lawyer, was born on 29 December 1792 at Kenley, Shropshire, in the parsonage of his father, Archibald Alison (1757–1839), son of Patrick Alison, lord provost of Edinburgh. The elder Archibald married in 1784 Dorothea (...

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Sir Archibald Alison, first baronet (1792–1867) by Sir John Watson-Gordon, 1839 unknown collection / Christie's; photograph National Portrait Gallery, London

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Allen, Anthony (1685–1754), barrister and antiquary, was born on 3 June 1685 and baptized at Much Hadham, Hertfordshire, two days later, the fourth surviving son of William Allen (d. 1698), of Much Hadham, and his wife, Bridget James. After attending Bishop's Stortford School...

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Amyot, Thomas (1775–1850), lawyer and antiquary, was the eldest of the six sons and one daughter of Peter Amyot (c.1736–1799), a watch- and clock-maker, and his wife, Susannah Garrett. His great-grandfather Thomas, the eldest son of a physician to Louis XIII...

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Anderson, John (1798–1839), genealogist and writer to the signet, was born on 16 August 1798, the eldest of four children of Peter Anderson (1768–1823), a solicitor in Inverness, and his wife, Jessie Thomson (c.1766–1836). Anderson was educated for seven years at the private boarding-school in ...

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Aram, Eugene (bap. 1704, d. 1759), murderer and philologist, was born at Ramsgill and baptized on 2 October 1704 at Middlesmoor, West Riding of Yorkshire. Little is known of his mother, but his father, Peter Aram (bap. 1667, d. 1735), employed as gardener to ...

Article

Archer, Sir Simon (1581–1662), magistrate and antiquary, was born on 21 September 1581, the eldest son of Andrew Archer (d. 1629) of Umberslade, near Tanworth in Arden, Warwickshire, and Margaret (d. 1614), daughter of Simon Ralegh of Farnborough, Warwickshire. He was educated at ...

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Armitage, Sir Arthur Llewellyn (1916–1984), jurist and university administrator, was born on 1 August 1916 at Town Gate, Marsden, Yorkshire, the elder son of Kenyon Armitage (d. 1972), master draper of Oldham, and his wife, Lucy Amelia Beaumont (d. 1968). He attended ...

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Arnold, Thomas James (1803–1877), barrister and literary translator, was born on 6 July 1803 in Downing Street, Westminster, London, the eldest son of Samuel James Arnold (1774–1852), dramatist, and Matilda Catherine Pye (d. 1851), younger daughter of Henry James Pye, MP and poet laureate. He was educated at ...

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Atwood, Thomas (d. 1793), judge in Dominica and the Bahamas and writer on economics and history, wrote that he spent several years of his life in Dominica, but his origins, as most of his other biographical details, are unknown. He was chief judge of ...

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Backhouse, Sir Edmund Trelawny, second baronet (1873–1944), Sinologist and fraudster, eldest of the four surviving sons of Jonathan Edmund Backhouse, first baronet (1849–1918), a banker, and Florence (1845–1902), youngest daughter of Sir John Salusbury Salusbury-Trelawny, was born on 20 October 1873 at The Rookery, Middleton Tyas, Yorkshire...

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Ball, Sir Peter (bap. 1598, d. 1680), lawyer and antiquary, was the second-born (but eldest surviving) son of Giles Ball (b. 1573) of Mamhead, Devon, and his wife, Urith (d. 1644), daughter of Humphrey Copleston of Instow, Devon. He was baptized at ...

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Barclay, Thomas (c. 1570–1632), jurist, was born in Aberdeen of unknown parents. He was sent to Bordeaux in the 1580s to study the Latin and Greek humanities and philosophy at the municipal Collège de Guyenne. This was one of the leading schools in ...

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Daines Barrington (1727/88–1800) by Charles Knight, 1795 (after Joseph Slater, 1770) © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Barrington, Daines (1727/8–1800), judge, antiquary, and naturalist, was born at Becket in the parish of Shrivenham in Berkshire, the fourth son and fourth of nine children of John Shute Barrington, first Viscount Barrington (1678–1734), barrister and politician, and his wife, Anne (d...

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Benson, Robert (1797–1844), judge and local historian of Salisbury, was born in the cathedral close, Salisbury, on 5 February 1797, the youngest son of the Revd Edmund Benson (d. 1835), vicar of Salisbury Cathedral, and his wife, Anne Hunt Grubbe. He was educated at a private school in ...

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Bentham, Jeremy (1748–1832), philosopher, jurist, and reformer, was born on 4 February 1748 in Church Lane, Houndsditch, London, the eldest of the seven children of Jeremiah Bentham (1712–1792), attorney, and Alicia Woodward Whitehorne (d. 1759), the eldest daughter of Thomas Grove, a mercer of ...

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Jeremy Bentham (1748–1832) by Henry William Pickersgill, 1829 © National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

D. J. O'Donoghue

revised by Sinéad Agnew

Bewley, Sir Edmund Thomas (1837–1908), lawyer and genealogist, was born in Dublin on 11 January 1837, the son of Edward Bewley (1806–1876), licentiate of the Irish colleges both of surgeons and of physicians, and his wife, Mary, daughter of Thomas Mulock (1791–1857) of ...

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W. P. Courtney

revised by Hugh Mooney

Bolland, Sir William (1771/2–1840), lawyer and book collector, was the eldest son of James Bolland of Southwark. He was educated under Dr Valpy at Reading School where he wrote several prologues and epilogues for the school's annual dramatic performances. He then went to ...