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Eden, Sir Frederick Morton, second baronet (1766–1809), insurance company manager and writer on the state of the poor, was born at Ashtead, Surrey, the eldest son of Sir Robert Eden (created a baronet in 1776), governor of Maryland, and grandson of Sir Robert Eden, ...

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Hobson, John Atkinson (1858–1940), social theorist and economist, was born on 6 July 1858 at Iron Gate, Derby, the second son of William Hobson (1825–1897), founder, editor, and part proprietor of the Derbyshire Advertiser and twice mayor of Derby, and his wife, Josephine Atkinson...

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John Atkinson Hobson (1858–1940) by unknown photographer British Library of Political and Economic Science

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Howlett, John (1731–1804), economist and writer on the poor, was the son of John Howlett of Bedworth, Warwickshire. Educated at the University of Oxford, he matriculated from St Edmund Hall in 1749, gaining his BA from St John's College in 1755. He later obtained the degrees MA (1795) and BD (1796) from ...

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Sadler, Michael Thomas (1780–1835), social reformer and political economist, was born on 3 January 1780 at the Old Hall, Doveridge, Snelston, Derbyshire. He was the youngest of the six children of James Sadler (d. 1800?), a gentleman farmer at Doveridge who claimed descent from ...

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Michael Thomas Sadler (1780–1835) by William Robinson, in or before 1830 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Toynbee, Arnold (1852–1883), social reformer and political economist, was born at 18 Savile Row, London, on 23 August 1852, the second son of Joseph Toynbee (1815–1866), an eminent aural surgeon, and his wife, Harriet Holmes. Toynbee owed much in his early years to the influence of his father, who, though he died when his son was only fourteen, had already inspired him with a love of literature and with the foundations of those social ideals which were afterwards the main interest of his life. ...

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Arnold Toynbee (1852–1883) by unknown photographer © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Wakefield, Edward (1774–1854), philanthropist, land agent, and writer on political economy, was born in Tottenham, Middlesex. He was the elder son of Edward Wakefield (1750–1826), merchant, and the writer Priscilla Wakefield (1750–1832), daughter of Daniel Bell. Daniel Wakefield was his younger brother. Edward...

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Warriner, Doreen Agnes Rosemary Julia (1904–1972), rescuer of refugees and development economist, was born on 16 March 1904 at Weston Park, Long Compton, Warwickshire, the only daughter and eldest child of Henry Arthur Warriner (1859–1927), land agent for Weston Park, and later a landowner, and his wife, ...