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Henry Beaufort (1375?–1447) stone effigy © English Heritage. NMR

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Beaufort, Henry [called the Cardinal of England] (1375?–1447), bishop of Winchester and cardinal, was the second of four illegitimate children of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster (1340–1399), and Katherine Swynford (1350?–1403), daughter of the Hainaulter Sir Payn Roelt, who was governess to the duke's children [...

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Geoffrey (1151?–1212), archbishop of York, was the illegitimate son of Henry II. He was probably named after his paternal grandfather, Geoffrey of Anjou (d. 1151).

Geoffrey's date of birth is suggested by indirect evidence. ...

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Geoffrey (1151?–1212) seal Chapter of Durham Cathedral

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Stewart, Alexander (c. 1493–1513), administrator and archbishop-designate of St Andrews, was the illegitimate son of James IV, king of Scots (1473–1513), and Marion Boyd. His mother, with whom James IV had a liaison between 1492 and 1494, was the daughter of Archibald Boyd...

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Stewart, James, duke of Ross (1476–1504), archbishop-designate of St Andrews, was the second son of James III, king of Scots, and his wife, Margaret of Denmark. Born early in 1476, James was immediately created marquess of Ormond, and along with his elder brother, the future ...

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Wolsey, Thomas (1470/71–1530), royal minister, archbishop of York, and cardinal, was the son of Robert Wulcy or Wolsey of Ipswich (d. 1496) and his wife, Joan Daundy (d. 1509). Wolsey's father ran a tavern in the parish of St Mary at the Elms, Ipswich...

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Thomas Wolsey (1470/7171–1530) by unknown artist, late 16th cent. [original, c.1520] © National Portrait Gallery, London