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Austen, Ralph (c. 1612–1676), horticulturist and religious radical, was born into a yeoman family in Leek, Staffordshire; his mother was a cousin of Henry Ireton, the parliamentary leader, a connection Austen repeatedly stressed in his attempts to gain offices or land grants. Austen...

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Barnewall, Robert, styled twelfth Baron Trimleston (c. 1704–1779), landowner and Roman Catholic activist, was the eldest son of John Barnewall, styled eleventh Baron Trimleston (1672–1746), and his wife, Mary, or Margaret (d. 1771), daughter and heir of Sir John Barnewall. Descended from an Anglo-Norman family whose estates in the counties of ...

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Beale, John (bap. 1608, d. 1683), Church of England clergyman and writer on agriculture and natural philosophy, was baptized at Yarkhill, Herefordshire, on 17 April 1608, the sixth and youngest son of Thomas Beale (1575–1620), a lawyer and prominent gentleman farmer, and his wife, ...

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Patrick Bell (1799–1869) by unknown engraver, pubd 1868 (after E. Strachan) © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Bell, Patrick (1799–1869), Church of Scotland minister and inventor of agricultural machinery, was born in April 1799 at mid-Leoch, in the parish of Auchterhouse, a few miles north-west of Dundee. He was one of at least two sons of George Bell, a tenant farmer at ...

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Bertie, Richard (1517–1582), landowner and religious evangelical, was the eldest son of Thomas Bertie (d. 1555), of Bearsted, Kent, and his wife, a member of the Say family of Shropshire. In February 1534 he was admitted to Corpus Christi College, Oxford, aged sixteen. Having graduated BA in 1537, he became a probationary fellow of ...

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Bridges, Thomas (c. 1842–1898), dictionary compiler, missionary, and sheep farmer, was found abandoned, perhaps on a bridge near Bristol, aged about two and a half, and taken to an orphanage, the name of which remains unknown. He was adopted by the Revd George Pakenham Despard...

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Browne, Thomas, fourth Viscount Kenmare (1726–1795), landowner and politician, was born in April 1726, probably at Killarney, co. Kerry, the second of four children of Valentine Browne, third Viscount Kenmare (1695–1736), landowner, and his first wife, Honoria Butler (d. 1730), daughter of ...

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Carleton, George (1529–1590), landowner and puritan, was the second son of John Carleton of Walton-on-Thames, Surrey, and Brightwell Baldwin, Oxfordshire, and his wife, Joyce, daughter of John Welbeck of Oxenheath, Kent. His maternal grandmother was Margaret Culpepper, an aunt of Queen Katherine Howard...

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Copley, Thomas (1532–1584), landowner and Roman Catholic exile, was born between February and May 1532, eldest son of Sir Roger Copley (d. 1549), landowner and member of the Mercers' Company, and his second wife, Elizabeth (d. 1559/60), daughter of Sir William Shelley...

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Daniel, Henry (fl. 1379), Dominican friar and horticulturist, was skilled in the medical and natural science of his time. His surviving works include a treatise on diagnosis from urinoscopy, De judiciis urinarum, based on the work of Ysaac Judaeus (d. c.955)...

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D'Ombrain, Henry Honywood (1818–1905), Church of England clergyman and gardener, was born in Ebury Street, Pimlico, London, on 10 May 1818, the son of Admiral Sir James D'Ombrain (1793–1871), inspector-general of the Coast Guard in Ireland from 1819 to 1849, for which he was knighted in 1844, and his wife, ...

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Eliot, Jared (1685–1763), Congregationalist minister in America, physician, and writer on agriculture, was born on 7 November 1685 in Guilford, Connecticut, the first of four children of Joseph Eliot (1638–1694), Congregational minister, and Mary Wyllys. Eliot entered Harvard College in 1699 but studied there only a year. When ...

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Ellacombe, Henry Nicholson (1822–1916), Church of England clergyman and gardener, was born at the vicarage, Bitton, Gloucestershire, on 18 February 1822, the only son among the six children of Henry Thomas Ellacombe (1790–1885), vicar of Bitton, and his first wife, Ann, née Nicholson (...

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Erskine, John, of Dun (1509–1590), landowner and religious activist, was born in the House of Dun, between Montrose and Brechin, the elder son of John Erskine of Dun (d. 1513), and of Margaret Ruthven (d. 1548), widow of Alexander Stewart, first earl of Buchan...

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Estaugh [née Haddon], Elizabeth (1680–1762), Quaker leader and colonial landowner, was born on 5 July 1680 in Bermondsey, Surrey, the second daughter and third child of John Haddon (1654–1724) and his wife, Elizabeth, née Clarke (1651?–1724). John Haddon was a convinced Quaker and twice had been fined for voicing his religious views. Like other Quakers he was persuaded by ...

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Findlater, Charles (1754–1838), Church of Scotland minister and writer on agriculture, was born on 10 January 1754 in the manse of West Linton, Peeblesshire, the second son of Thomas Findlater (1697–1778) and his second wife, Jean Brown (d. 1802), daughter of William Brown...

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Edwin Cannan

revised by Adam Jacob Levin

Fothergill, Anthony (1685/6–1761), landowner and theological writer, was baptized on 9 December 1686 at Ravenstone, Westmorland, the youngest son of Thomas Fothergill of Brownber, Ravenstonedale, farmer. Like his forefathers and descendants for many generations, he owned the estate of Brownber and lived and died there. Though he is said to have had no 'liberal education', he published several theological works, the largest of which is entitled ...

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Gery [Geary], John (1637/8–1722), Church of England clergyman and land agent, was the son of John Gery of Coventry (d. c.1653), and his second wife, Anne, daughter of Richard Butler of the Charterhouse near Coventry. He matriculated at Magdalen College, Oxford...

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Gordon, William, of Earlston (1614–1679), landowner and covenanter, born in Dalry, Kirkcudbrightshire, was the second son of Alexander Gordon of Earlston (1587–1654), justice of the peace, and Elizabeth (d. in or after 1653), daughter of John Gordon of Pennynghame. Little is known regarding his education, though he is said to have studied for the ministry and to have graduated MA. On 26 October 1648 he married ...