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Ayrton [née Marks], (Phoebe) Sarah [Hertha] (1854–1923), electrical engineer and suffragist, was born Phoebe Sarah Marks on 28 April 1854 at 6 Queen Street, Portsea, Portsmouth, third child of Alice Theresa (d. 1898), seamstress, daughter of Joseph Moss, glass merchant of ...

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Martin Alan Feldman (1934–1982) by Terry O'Neill, 1974 [on the set of the film Young Frankenstein] © Terry O'Neill; collection National Portrait Gallery, London

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Feldman, Martin Alan [Marty] (1934–1982), comedian and scriptwriter, was born on 8 July 1934 at University College Hospital, London, the elder of the two children of Myer Feldman, a gown manufacturer of Islington, and his wife, Cecilia (Cissie), née Crook. He had a sister, ...

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Sir Otto Kahn- Freund (1900–1979) by unknown photographer British Library of Political and Economic Science

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Freund, Sir Otto Kahn- (1900–1979), jurist, was born in Frankfurt am Main on 17 November 1900, the only child of Richard Kahn-Freund, a merchant, and his wife, Carrie Freund. He grew up in a cultured Jewish household and though in religious matters he was agnostic, he himself said that the most important fact in his life had been the awareness of being a Jew. To this he attributed the passion for justice and the concern for the disadvantaged which lay at the root both of his interest in labour law and of his socialist convictions....

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Ganz, Peter Felix (1920–2006), German scholar, was born on 3 November 1920 in Mainz, Germany, the son of Hermann Friedrich Ignaz Ganz, who was company secretary in the family carpet business, and his wife, Charlotte (Lotte), née Fromberg. Both parents had doctorates in law. His father's was a long-established ...

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Gregory, Frederick Gugenheim [formerly Fritz Gugenheim] (1893–1961), plant physiologist, was born at 236 Tufnell Park Road, Upper Holloway, London, on 22 December 1893. Fritz was the fourth of the eight children of Carl Gugenheim, a manufacturing jeweller, and Laura Maison. His father was a Jewish expatriate from ...

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Frederick Gugenheim Gregory (1893–1961) by Elliott & Fry, 1958 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Hinden [née Gesundheit], Rita (1909–1971), journalist and campaigner on colonial issues, was born on 16 December 1909 in Cape Town, Cape Colony, and given the name Rebecca, which she never used. She was the second of the four children of Jacob or Jacov Gesundheit (1880–1955)...

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Eva Marian Hubback (1886–1949) by Robin Adler © Robin Adler; photograph National Portrait Gallery, London

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Hubback [née Spielman], Eva Marian (1886–1949), social reformer and feminist, was born at 23 Oxford Square, London, on 13 April 1886, the second child and elder daughter in the family of two daughters and two sons of Sir Meyer Adam Spielman (1856–1936)...

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Ricardo, David (1772–1823), political economist, was born on 18 April 1772 at 36 Broad Street Buildings in the City of London, the third surviving child of Abraham Israel Ricardo (1733?–1812) and his wife, Abigail Delvalle (1753–1801). Sarah Ricardo Porter was his sister. The ...

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David Ricardo (1772–1823) by Thomas Phillips, exh. RA 1821 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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William Alexander Robson (1895–1980) by Elliott & Fry, 1963 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Robson, William Alexander (1895–1980), jurist and reformer, was born on 14 July 1895 at Finchley, Middlesex, the first son and youngest of three children of Jack Robson, born Jacob Alexander Isaacs, a dealer in pearls in Hatton Garden, and his wife, Esther Louisa Afriat...

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Sir Joseph Rotblat (1908–2005) by Dominick Tyler, 1995 © Dominick Tyler

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Rotblat, Sir Joseph (1908–2005), scientist and peace activist, was born Jósef Rotblat on 4 November 1908 in Warsaw, the eldest of five surviving children (two others died in infancy) of Zygmunt, otherwise Zelman, Rotblat, the owner of a haulage company specializing in the paper trade, and his wife, ...

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Seligman, Gerald Abraham (1886–1973), glaciologist, was born on 26 March 1886 at Clapham Park, London, the seventh and youngest child of Isaac Seligman (1834–1928), merchant banker, and his wife, Lina Messel (1851–1925), of Darmstadt, Germany. Both his parents were of German-Jewish origin. From 1900 to 1903, he was educated at ...

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Stengel, Erwin (1902–1973), psychiatrist, born in Vienna on 25 March 1902, was the son of a rabbinical scholar and schoolteacher, Abraham Markus Stengel, and of Franziska Popper; he had a twin brother and older twin siblings. From 1921 Stengel studied medicine, specializing in neuropsychiatry, at the ...

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Winner, Dame Albertine Louisa (1907–1988), physician and medical administrator, was born on 4 March 1907 in Coulsdon, Surrey, the only child of Isidore Winner (who had changed his name from Isidor Wiener on leaving the Netherlands some years previously), hide merchant, and his wife, ...