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Ayrton [née Marks], (Phoebe) Sarah [Hertha] (1854–1923), electrical engineer and suffragist, was born Phoebe Sarah Marks on 28 April 1854 at 6 Queen Street, Portsea, Portsmouth, third child of Alice Theresa (d. 1898), seamstress, daughter of Joseph Moss, glass merchant of ...

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Bensusan, Samuel Levy (1872–1958), journalist and author, was born on 29 September 1872 at Dulwich, London, the second of five children of Jacob Samuel Levy Bensusan (1846–1917), feather merchant, and Miriam (1848–1926), the daughter of Moses Levy Bensusan and his wife, Emily. His parents were Orthodox Sephardi Jews of Spanish descent whose ancestors had held high office in the courts of the ...

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Cliff, Tony [formerly Ygael Amnon Gluckstein] (1917–2000), Trotskyist leader, was born on 20 May 1917 at Zikhron Yaakov in Turkish Palestine, the youngest of four children of Akiva Gluckstein, a prosperous building contractor, and his wife, Esther, who had emigrated from Russian ...

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Cohen, Chapman (1868–1954), freethought writer and lecturer, was born in Leicester on 1 September 1868, the elder son of Enoch Cohen, a Jewish confectioner, and his wife, Deborah Barnett. His upbringing was more noted for the absence of Christianity than for any positive Jewish features. He attended a local elementary school but was otherwise self-educated. Although an avid reader, versed in ...

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Daniels, Henry Ellis (1912–2000), statistician, was born on 2 October 1912 in London, the second child of Morris Daniels (1889–1953), a salesman, and his wife, Hannah, née Goldberg (1890–1959). His was a Jewish family of Russian (partly Polish and partly Lithuanian) origin. When he was two the family moved to join the Lithuanian branch in ...

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Deutscher, Isaac (1907–1967), biographer and historian, was born in Chrzanow, near Cracow, Galicia, in Austro-Hungarian Poland on 3 April 1907, the eldest among the three children of Jacob Kopel Deutscher, who owned his own printing business, and his second wife, Gustawa, née Jolles...

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Eder, (Montague) David (1865–1936), psychoanalyst, was born on 12 August 1865 at 19 Euston Square, London, the eldest of the four children of David Martin Eder, shipping merchant, and his second wife, Esther Burnstein, formerly Soloman. His parents were both Jewish. Eder was educated in ...

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Martin Alan Feldman (1934–1982) by Terry O'Neill, 1974 [on the set of the film Young Frankenstein] © Terry O'Neill; collection National Portrait Gallery, London

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Feldman, Martin Alan [Marty] (1934–1982), comedian and scriptwriter, was born on 8 July 1934 at University College Hospital, London, the elder of the two children of Myer Feldman, a gown manufacturer of Islington, and his wife, Cecilia (Cissie), née Crook. He had a sister, ...

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Finley, Sir Moses I. (1912–1986), historian and sociologist, was born in New York on 20 May 1912, the eldest in the family of three sons and one daughter of Nathan Finkelstein, mechanical engineer, of New York, and his wife, Anna Katzenellenbogen. In October 1946 he followed his brothers and changed his name to ...

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Sir Otto Kahn- Freund (1900–1979) by unknown photographer British Library of Political and Economic Science

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Freund, Sir Otto Kahn- (1900–1979), jurist, was born in Frankfurt am Main on 17 November 1900, the only child of Richard Kahn-Freund, a merchant, and his wife, Carrie Freund. He grew up in a cultured Jewish household and though in religious matters he was agnostic, he himself said that the most important fact in his life had been the awareness of being a Jew. To this he attributed the passion for justice and the concern for the disadvantaged which lay at the root both of his interest in labour law and of his socialist convictions....

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Fyleman, Rose Amy (1877–1957), children's writer, was born at The Park, Standard Hill, Basford, on the outskirts of Nottingham on 6 March 1877, the third child of John Feilmann and his wife, Emilie, née Loewenstein, who was of Russian extraction. Her father was in the lace trade, and the family were freethinking Jews who had come from ...

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Rose Amy Fyleman (1877–1957) by Howard Coster, 1920s © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Ganz, Peter Felix (1920–2006), German scholar, was born on 3 November 1920 in Mainz, Germany, the son of Hermann Friedrich Ignaz Ganz, who was company secretary in the family carpet business, and his wife, Charlotte (Lotte), née Fromberg. Both parents had doctorates in law. His father's was a long-established ...

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See Gaster, Moses

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Gregory, Frederick Gugenheim [formerly Fritz Gugenheim] (1893–1961), plant physiologist, was born at 236 Tufnell Park Road, Upper Holloway, London, on 22 December 1893. Fritz was the fourth of the eight children of Carl Gugenheim, a manufacturing jeweller, and Laura Maison. His father was a Jewish expatriate from ...

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Frederick Gugenheim Gregory (1893–1961) by Elliott & Fry, 1958 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Hertz, Fanny (1830–1908), educationist, was born in Hanover, Germany, the elder of two daughters (there were also two sons) of Bram Hertz (1793/4-1865), and his wife Amelia (1808/9-1892). Her father was a diamond merchant, who settled in London in 1837, where he was a dealer and collector of pictures and objects of virtu at his premises in ...

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Hinden [née Gesundheit], Rita (1909–1971), journalist and campaigner on colonial issues, was born on 16 December 1909 in Cape Town, Cape Colony, and given the name Rebecca, which she never used. She was the second of the four children of Jacob or Jacov Gesundheit (1880–1955)...