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Ahmad Khan, Sir Saiyid [Syed Ahmed Khan] (1817–1898), Muslim leader in India, was born on 17 October 1817 in Khwaja Farid's haveli (mansion) near the Tiraha Bahram Khan in Delhi, the youngest of the three children (two boys and one girl) of ...

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Ali, (Chaudhri) Muhammad (1905–1980), prime minister of Pakistan, 1955–6, was born on 15 July 1905 in Nangalambia village, Jullundur district, Punjab province, India. His father was Chaudhri Khairuddin, a farmer and member of the Arain community, his mother, Ayesha Khairdin; he was the third of five children, with two elder sisters and two younger brothers. ...

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Amanullah Khan (1892–1960), amir of Afghanistan, was born on 2 June 1892 at Paghman, Kabul. He was the third son of Amir (King) Habibullah (d. 1919), but his mother, Ulya Hazrat, was the ‘first queen’. She used her considerable skill and intelligence to prepare him for the throne. However, ...

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See Muhammad Ali Khan Walahjah

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Asaf Jah VII [Osman Ali Khan] (1886–1967), nizam of Hyderabad, was born on 6 April 1886 at Hyderabad city, India, as Osman Ali Khan. He was the eldest son of Mir Mahbub Ali Khan (1866–1911), then the nizam (ruler) of Hyderabad as Asaf Jah VI...

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Mohammad Ayub Khan (1907–1974) by unknown photographer © reserved

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Ayub Khan, Mohammad (1907–1974), president of Pakistan, was born on 14 May 1907 at Rehana, in the Hazara district of the North-West Frontier Province of undivided British India. He was the fifth child of Mir Dad Khan, a retired Indian army junior officer. The family were comfortably off, but not wealthy members of the ...

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Azad, Abul Kalam (1888–1958), politician and author, was born on 11 November 1888 in Mecca, Arabia. His father, Sheikh Khairuddin Dehlavi (1831–1908), was an Islamic scholar and Sufi who had migrated to Mecca about the time of the 1857 revolt and there had married an Arab woman, the niece of the mufti of ...

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(Mohammed Aboulkhair) Zaki Badawi (1922–2006) by Gemma Levine, 1998 Getty Images

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Badawi, (Mohammed Aboulkhair) Zaki (1922–2006), scholar of Islam and Muslim community leader, was born on 14 January (or possibly 11 August) 1922 at Sharkia, outside Cairo, Egypt, the son of Zaki Badawi, a university lecturer. He entered al-Azhar University in Cairo, arguably the most prestigious major place of learning for ...

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Dumbuya, Alimami Dala Muhammadu [Dala Modu] (c. 1760–1841), political leader in Sierra Leone, was born in Bambouk in the upper Senegal River region, the eldest son of Fenda Muhammadu Dumbuya and Mama Dalu of Bambouk. He was a member of the Dumbuya, one of the most distinguished merchant (...

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Husain, Sir Mian Fazl-i- (1877–1936), politician in India, was born on 14 June 1877 in Peshawar, North-West Frontier Province, India, where his father, Mian Husain Imam Bakhsh, was posted as 'extra assistant commissioner'. He came from a family of Bhatti Rajputs from Batala...

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Hussein ibn Ali (1853–1931), emir of Mecca and founder of the Hashemite kingdom of the Hejaz, was born in Constantinople in 1853, the first son of Ali ibn Muhammad (d. 1861) and Salha. His parents were descendants of the prophet Muhammad, as denoted by their titles sherif and sherifa respectively, and members of the ...

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H. A. R. Gibb

revised by Francis Robinson

Iqbal, Sir Muhammad (1877–1938), philosopher and poet, was born at Sialkot in the Punjab on 9 November 1877. He was the younger son of Sheikh Nuruddin Muhammad, whose forebears were Hindu converts to Islam originally from Kashmir, and Imam Bibi, a devout woman of working-class background. He was educated at the ...

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Khaliquzzaman, Choudhry (1889–1973), politician in India and Pakistan, was born on 25 December 1889 in Chunar, in the district of Mirzapur, of the North-Western Provinces of India. He was the fourth of the eight children of Sheikh Mohammad Zaman, an assistant tahsildar in British service, and his second wife, ...

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F. M. Innes

revised by Ian Talbot

Khan Sahib (1883–1958), politician, was born in the village of Utmanzai in the Peshawar district where his father, Khan Behram Khan, was an influential Muhammadzai landowner. With his younger brother, Abdul Ghaffar Khan, who later became known as the Frontier Gandhi, he was educated at the ...

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Abdul Ghaffar Khan (1890–1988) by Narayan Vinayak Virkar © Nehru Memorial Museum and Library, New Delhi

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Khan, Abdul Ghaffar (1890–1988), Pakhtun nationalist, was born in the village of Utmanzai in the Peshawar district of the North-West Frontier Province. He was the fourth child of Khan Behram Khan, an influential Muhammadzai landlord. Following admission to a mosque school at the age of five, he was educated at the ...

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Khan, Sir (Muhammad) Hamidullah (1894–1960), nawab of Bhopal, was born on 9 September 1894 in the Sadar Manzir palace, Bhopal, the third son of Nawab Sultan Jahan Begum (1858–1930), the third successive woman to rule the princely state of Bhopal, and ...

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Muhammad 'Abdallah Hasan [Muḣammad 'Abd Allāh Ḥasan] (1856–1920/21), religious leader, was born north of Buuhoodle, Somaliland, the eldest son of an Ogaden father, Sheikh 'Abdallah Hasan, and a Dhulbahanta mother, Timiro Seed Magan. Contemporary Britons called him the ‘Mad Mullah’...