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Alsop [Alsopp], Thomas (d. 1558), apothecary, is thought to have been connected with the Alsop family of Alsop (now Alsop-en-le-Dale) chapelry in Ashbourne, Derbyshire, but his parentage remains unknown; and, although Alsops from Alsop were living in London during the sixteenth century, no link with ...

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Anderson, Patrick (1579/80–c. 1660), physician and manufacturer of patent medicines, was born in Scotland. By 1618, when his first work appeared, he was already an established physician in Edinburgh; the book, about the cold spring of Kinghorn Craig in the Firth of Forth...

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Battley, Richard (bap. 1772, d. 1856), apothecary and manufacturing chemist, was baptized on 26 September 1772 at Wakefield, Yorkshire, the second son of John Battley, an architect of local repute, and his wife, Ruth Gledhill. After attending Wakefield grammar school, he was privately trained for medicine by a doctor in the town. He then moved to ...

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Beckett, Arnold Heyworth (1920–2010), pharmacologist, was born at Rose Lea, Woodland Grove, Blackpool, Lancashire, on 12 February 1920, the son of Ernest Heyworth Beckett (1891–1974), pharmacist, and his wife, Edith, née Duckworth. He was educated at Baines Grammar School in Poulton-le-Fylde. He tried to join the ...

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Beecham, Thomas (1820–1907), manufacturer of patent medicines, was born at Curbridge, Oxfordshire, on 3 December 1820, the eldest of three sons and four daughters of Joseph Beecham, an agricultural labourer, and his wife, Sarah, daughter of James Hunt. He received a year's schooling before becoming a shepherd's boy at the age of eight. For the next twelve years as a shepherd, he educated himself and acquired herbal lore. From 1840 onwards he undertook casual work at ...

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Bell, Jacob (1810–1859), pharmacist and politician, was born on 5 March 1810 at 338 Oxford Street, London, the eldest surviving son of John Bell (1774–1849), pharmacist, and his wife, Eliza (d. 1839), daughter of Frederick Smith, pharmacist of the Haymarket, London, and his wife, ...

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G. S. Boulger

revised by J. K. Crellin

Bentley, Robert (1821–1893), botanist and pharmacognosist, was born at Hitchin, Hertfordshire, on 25 March 1821, the son of William Bentley, solicitor, and his wife, Jane. He was apprenticed to William Maddock, a druggist at Tunbridge Wells, where he began the study of botany. He then became assistant to the chemists ...

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Bernard, Francis (bap. 1628, d. 1698), apothecary and physician, one of at least nine children of Samuel Bernard (1590/91–1657), vicar of Croydon, Surrey, and his wife, Elizabeth (1608/9–1705), was baptized at St John the Baptist, Croydon, on 28 September 1628. He was bound apprentice to ...

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Bevan, Silvanus (1691–1765), apothecary, was born in Swansea on 28 October 1691, the second son of Silvanus Bevan (1661–1727) and his wife, Jane, née Phillips. The descendant of influential and prosperous Welsh Quakers (his grandfather had been a Swansea alderman and a merchant), ...

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Bewley, William (1726–1783), surgeon apothecary and writer, was a native of Massingham, in Norfolk, where he was born on 5 September 1726. He practised as a surgeon apothecary in Great Massingham, but is better known for his contribution, which spanned twenty years, of articles and reviews to the ...

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Sir James Whyte Black (1924–2010) by Martin Yeoman, 1994 © Martin Yeoman; National Portrait Gallery, London

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Black, Sir James Whyte (1924–2010), pharmacologist, was born on 14 June 1924 at Thirlwall, Sheepburn Road, Uddingston, Lanarkshire, the fourth of five sons of Walter Black, miner, and his wife, Catherine Reid, née Whyte. His father subsequently qualified as a mining engineer and became a colliery manager in ...

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Blackrie, Alexander (bap. 1702, d. 1772), surgeon-apothecary, was baptized on 14 June 1702 at the church of St Nicholas, Aberdeen, the seventh of the eleven children of William Blackrie and his wife, Isobel, née Fordyce. A merchant's son, he was educated at the grammar school and ...

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Blackstone, John (1712–1753), apothecary and botanist, was born at Harefield, Middlesex, the eldest of three sons of Edward Blackstone (d. 1730), ironmonger and citizen of London, and his wife, Sarah, daughter of Francis Ashby of Brakspeare, Harefield. In 1729 he was apprenticed to ...

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Blaschko, Hugh [formerly Karl Felix Hermann] (1900–1993), biochemist and pharmacologist, was born on 4 January 1900 in Friedrichstrasse, Berlin, the only son and second of the three children of Alfred Blaschko (1858–1922), dermatologist and venereologist, and his wife, Johanna (1873–1943), daughter of ...

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Boghurst, William (1630/31–1685), apothecary, of St Giles-in-the-Fields, London, was the son of William Boghurst of Ditton, Kent, and served his apprenticeship with a London apothecary, Francis Drury. During the great plague of 1665 his medical practice expanded and he made his name. He stayed in the city throughout the epidemic, treating by his own account '40, 50 or 60 patients a day' (...

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Bostock, John (1772–1846), physician and medicinal chemist, was born in Liverpool, the son of John Bostock (1744?–1774), a physician, and Elizabeth (1749–1819), youngest daughter of John Ashton of Liverpool, who later married the Unitarian minister John Yates (1755–1826). He grew up in Liverpool...

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Brady, Henry Bowman (1835–1891), naturalist and pharmacist, was born on 23 February 1835 at Gateshead, the son of Henry Brady (1805–1883), a medical practitioner and amateur naturalist, and his wife, Hannah Bowman (1802–1872) of One Ash Grange, Derbyshire. His older brother, George Stewardson Brady...

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Browne, John Collis (1819–1884), physician and manufacturer of patent medicine, was born on 18 June 1819 at Maidstone in Kent, and baptized at the church of All Saints with St Philip in that town. His parents were Captain William Browne of the 13th light dragoons...

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Brunton, Sir Thomas Lauder, first baronet (1844–1916), physician and pharmacologist, the third son of James Brunton (1781–1863), and his second wife, Agnes (1805/6–1848), daughter of John Stenhouse of White Lee, was born at Hiltonshill, Roxburghshire, on 14 March 1844. Educated privately, he entered the ...